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Validation of a simulator for cranial graft lift training: Face, content, and construct validity.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2018; 46(8):1390-1394JC

Abstract

PURPOSE

Surgical skills can be improved through practical exercise. The use of specimens, human as well as animal, or live animals for surgical training is limited due to ethical concerns. Drawbacks of simulators are costs, fidelity and creditibility. Thus, simulators must be evaluated objectively to determine their validity before they can be used as teaching modalities. The aim of this study was to verify the face content and construct validity of a novel model-based simulator for lifting tabula externa transplants from the parietal skull.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Participants were invited to perform a tabula externa graft lift during a training session on the simulator. Task performance was analyzed with a standardized assessment tool evaluating realism and appropriateness. Specialist ratings were used to evaluate the performance of the participants. This was an exploratory study using a questionnaire, at Kepler University Hospital, Linz, Austria, a university hospital. According to their expertise in craniomaxillofacial surgery, 17 participants were subdivided into 3 groups: 8 novices, 7 experts and 2 raters.

RESULTS

The face validity (realism) obtained an average score of 4.2 of a maximum of 5 points. Likewise, the content validity (appropriateness as a teaching modality) obtained an average score of 4.8 of maximum 5 points. No differences were found between experts and novices concerning the recorded surgery completion times (p = 0.418) or the sizes of the lifted grafts (p = 0.110). During the evaluation of task performance, the expert surgeons (46.9 ± 3.7) were graded significantly better than the novices (36.4 ± 8.5), which proved the construct validity of the simulator (p = 0.001).

CONCLUSION

All investigated validities were confirmed and approved the simulator as a valid training tool for parietal graft lift.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Research Group for Surgical Simulators Linz, Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences, Garnisonstr. 21, 4020 Linz, Austria; Institute of Biomechanics, BGU Trauma Clinic Murnau and Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Murnau, Prof. Küntscher-Str.8, 82418 Murnau am Staffelsee, Germany. Electronic address: marianne.hollensteiner@jh-linz.at.Department of Crania-Maxillofacial Surgery, Kepler University Clinic, Krankenhausstr.2, 4020 Linz, Austria.Institute of Biomechanics, BGU Trauma Clinic Murnau and Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Murnau, Prof. Küntscher-Str.8, 82418 Murnau am Staffelsee, Germany.Research Group for Surgical Simulators Linz, Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences, Garnisonstr. 21, 4020 Linz, Austria.Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Strubergasse 21, 5020 Salzburg, Austria.Department of Crania-Maxillofacial Surgery, Kepler University Clinic, Krankenhausstr.2, 4020 Linz, Austria.Research Group for Surgical Simulators Linz, Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences, Garnisonstr. 21, 4020 Linz, Austria; Institute of Biomechanics, BGU Trauma Clinic Murnau and Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Murnau, Prof. Küntscher-Str.8, 82418 Murnau am Staffelsee, Germany.Research Group for Surgical Simulators Linz, Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences, Garnisonstr. 21, 4020 Linz, Austria.Research Group for Surgical Simulators Linz, Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences, Garnisonstr. 21, 4020 Linz, Austria.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29884316

Citation

Hollensteiner, Marianne, et al. "Validation of a Simulator for Cranial Graft Lift Training: Face, Content, and Construct Validity." Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery : Official Publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, vol. 46, no. 8, 2018, pp. 1390-1394.
Hollensteiner M, Malek M, Augat P, et al. Validation of a simulator for cranial graft lift training: Face, content, and construct validity. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2018;46(8):1390-1394.
Hollensteiner, M., Malek, M., Augat, P., Fürst, D., Schrödl, F., Hunger, S., ... Schrempf, A. (2018). Validation of a simulator for cranial graft lift training: Face, content, and construct validity. Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery : Official Publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, 46(8), pp. 1390-1394. doi:10.1016/j.jcms.2018.05.036.
Hollensteiner M, et al. Validation of a Simulator for Cranial Graft Lift Training: Face, Content, and Construct Validity. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2018;46(8):1390-1394. PubMed PMID: 29884316.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Validation of a simulator for cranial graft lift training: Face, content, and construct validity. AU - Hollensteiner,Marianne, AU - Malek,Michael, AU - Augat,Peter, AU - Fürst,David, AU - Schrödl,Falk, AU - Hunger,Stefan, AU - Esterer,Benjamin, AU - Gabauer,Stefan, AU - Schrempf,Andreas, Y1 - 2018/05/21/ PY - 2018/02/05/received PY - 2018/04/27/revised PY - 2018/05/14/accepted PY - 2018/6/10/pubmed PY - 2019/1/18/medline PY - 2018/6/10/entrez KW - Skull cap model KW - Surgical simulation KW - Tabula externa KW - Validity SP - 1390 EP - 1394 JF - Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery JO - J Craniomaxillofac Surg VL - 46 IS - 8 N2 - PURPOSE: Surgical skills can be improved through practical exercise. The use of specimens, human as well as animal, or live animals for surgical training is limited due to ethical concerns. Drawbacks of simulators are costs, fidelity and creditibility. Thus, simulators must be evaluated objectively to determine their validity before they can be used as teaching modalities. The aim of this study was to verify the face content and construct validity of a novel model-based simulator for lifting tabula externa transplants from the parietal skull. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were invited to perform a tabula externa graft lift during a training session on the simulator. Task performance was analyzed with a standardized assessment tool evaluating realism and appropriateness. Specialist ratings were used to evaluate the performance of the participants. This was an exploratory study using a questionnaire, at Kepler University Hospital, Linz, Austria, a university hospital. According to their expertise in craniomaxillofacial surgery, 17 participants were subdivided into 3 groups: 8 novices, 7 experts and 2 raters. RESULTS: The face validity (realism) obtained an average score of 4.2 of a maximum of 5 points. Likewise, the content validity (appropriateness as a teaching modality) obtained an average score of 4.8 of maximum 5 points. No differences were found between experts and novices concerning the recorded surgery completion times (p = 0.418) or the sizes of the lifted grafts (p = 0.110). During the evaluation of task performance, the expert surgeons (46.9 ± 3.7) were graded significantly better than the novices (36.4 ± 8.5), which proved the construct validity of the simulator (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: All investigated validities were confirmed and approved the simulator as a valid training tool for parietal graft lift. SN - 1878-4119 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29884316/Validation_of_a_simulator_for_cranial_graft_lift_training:_Face_content_and_construct_validity_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1010-5182(18)30284-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -