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Transcranial direct current brain stimulation decreases impulsivity in ADHD.
Brain Stimul. 2018 Sep - Oct; 11(5):974-981.BS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Impulsivity is a core deficit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been shown to modulate cognitive control circuits and could enhance DLPFC activity, leading to improved impulse control in ADHD.

OBJECTIVE

Hypothesis: We predicted 2.0 mA anodal stimulation (tDCS) versus sham stimulation applied over the left DLPFC would improve Conners Continuous Performance Task (CPT) scores. Our secondary hypothesis predicted that stop signal task (SST) reaction time (SSRT) would decrease with tDCS (versus sham).

METHODS

Thirty-seven participants completed two periods of three tDCS (or sham) sessions two weeks apart in a within-subject, double-blind, counterbalanced order. Participants performed a fractal N-back training task concurrent with tDCS (or sham) stimulation. Participants completed the CPT and SST at the beginning of treatment (baseline), at the end of the treatment, and at a 3-day post-stimulation follow-up.

RESULTS

There was a significant stimulation condition by session interaction for CPT false positive scores (χ[2] = 15.44, p < 0.001) driven by a decrease in false positive errors from baseline to end of treatment in the tDCS group (β = -0.36, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) -0.54 to -0.18, p < 0.001). This effect did not persist at follow-up (β = -0.13, p > 0.05). There was no significant stimulation condition by session interaction effect on CPT true positive errors or response time (ps > 0.05). No significant change in SSRT performance was observed (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSION

These findings suggest that stimulation of the left DLPFC with tDCS can improve impulsivity symptoms in ADHD, supporting the therapeutic potential for tDCS in adult ADHD patients.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Nicotine Addiction, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Nicotine Addiction, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Nicotine Addiction, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.Adult ADHD Treatment and Research Program, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.Adult ADHD Treatment and Research Program, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Nicotine Addiction, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Nicotine Addiction, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address: loughead@upenn.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29885858

Citation

Allenby, Cheyenne, et al. "Transcranial Direct Current Brain Stimulation Decreases Impulsivity in ADHD." Brain Stimulation, vol. 11, no. 5, 2018, pp. 974-981.
Allenby C, Falcone M, Bernardo L, et al. Transcranial direct current brain stimulation decreases impulsivity in ADHD. Brain Stimul. 2018;11(5):974-981.
Allenby, C., Falcone, M., Bernardo, L., Wileyto, E. P., Rostain, A., Ramsay, J. R., Lerman, C., & Loughead, J. (2018). Transcranial direct current brain stimulation decreases impulsivity in ADHD. Brain Stimulation, 11(5), 974-981. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2018.04.016
Allenby C, et al. Transcranial Direct Current Brain Stimulation Decreases Impulsivity in ADHD. Brain Stimul. 2018 Sep - Oct;11(5):974-981. PubMed PMID: 29885858.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Transcranial direct current brain stimulation decreases impulsivity in ADHD. AU - Allenby,Cheyenne, AU - Falcone,Mary, AU - Bernardo,Leah, AU - Wileyto,E Paul, AU - Rostain,Anthony, AU - Ramsay,J Russell, AU - Lerman,Caryn, AU - Loughead,James, Y1 - 2018/04/23/ PY - 2017/09/13/received PY - 2018/02/21/revised PY - 2018/04/19/accepted PY - 2018/6/11/pubmed PY - 2019/3/12/medline PY - 2018/6/11/entrez KW - Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder KW - Continuous performance task KW - Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex KW - Impulsivity KW - tDCS SP - 974 EP - 981 JF - Brain stimulation JO - Brain Stimul VL - 11 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a core deficit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been shown to modulate cognitive control circuits and could enhance DLPFC activity, leading to improved impulse control in ADHD. OBJECTIVE: Hypothesis: We predicted 2.0 mA anodal stimulation (tDCS) versus sham stimulation applied over the left DLPFC would improve Conners Continuous Performance Task (CPT) scores. Our secondary hypothesis predicted that stop signal task (SST) reaction time (SSRT) would decrease with tDCS (versus sham). METHODS: Thirty-seven participants completed two periods of three tDCS (or sham) sessions two weeks apart in a within-subject, double-blind, counterbalanced order. Participants performed a fractal N-back training task concurrent with tDCS (or sham) stimulation. Participants completed the CPT and SST at the beginning of treatment (baseline), at the end of the treatment, and at a 3-day post-stimulation follow-up. RESULTS: There was a significant stimulation condition by session interaction for CPT false positive scores (χ[2] = 15.44, p < 0.001) driven by a decrease in false positive errors from baseline to end of treatment in the tDCS group (β = -0.36, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) -0.54 to -0.18, p < 0.001). This effect did not persist at follow-up (β = -0.13, p > 0.05). There was no significant stimulation condition by session interaction effect on CPT true positive errors or response time (ps > 0.05). No significant change in SSRT performance was observed (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that stimulation of the left DLPFC with tDCS can improve impulsivity symptoms in ADHD, supporting the therapeutic potential for tDCS in adult ADHD patients. SN - 1876-4754 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29885858/Transcranial_direct_current_brain_stimulation_decreases_impulsivity_in_ADHD_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -