Incidence of cancer (other than gastric cancer) in pernicious anaemia: A systematic review with meta-analysis.Dig Liver Dis 2018; 50(8):780-786DL
Pernicious anaemia (PA) is associated with increased gastric cancer risk, but the evidence is conflicting regarding the associated risk of other cancers.
To systematically determine the incidence rates of gastro-intestinal cancers other than gastric cancers (GI-other-than-GC) and non-gastrointestinal cancers (non-GIC) in PA adults, globally and per tumour site, and the risk associated with PA for GI-other than GC and non-GIC.
Studies of PA patients reporting the incidence of GI-other-than-GCs and non-GICs were identified with MEDLINE (PubMed)-EMBASE (from first date available to April 2017). A meta-analysis of annual cancer incidence rates was performed. The outcome was the cumulative incidence of GI-other-than-GCs and non-GICs (ratio between the numbers of new cancer cases identified during the follow-up period and the number of PA patients) and the incidence rate expressed as the rate of events-per-time-unit (person-years).
Of 82,257 PA patients, the pooled incidence rates/100 person-years for non-GCs and non-GICs of 0.27 (95% CI:0.16-0.42) and 0.23 (95% CI:0.22-0.25) were calculated by meta-analysis. Compared to the GLOBOCAN data for the general population from the countries of the included studies, the meta-analysis showed an overall relative risk (RR) of cancer in PA of 0.68 (95% CI:0.48-0.95). PA patients had a lower RR of colorectal, breast, liver, oesophageal, lung, thyroid, ovary, non-melanoma skin and kidney cancers but had a higher RR of biliary tract cancer (1.81:1.21-2.70), multiple myeloma (2.83:1.76-4.55), Hodgkin's lymphoma (3.0:1.35-6.68), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (2.08: 1.58-2.75), and leukaemia (1.56:1.16-2.12).
An overall lower RR of cancers-other-than-gastric-cancer in PA patients but an increased RR of biliary tract cancers and haematological malignancies was observed.