The complete mitochondrial genome of Damora sagana and phylogenetic analyses of the family Nymphalidae.Genes Genomics. 2018 01; 40(1):109-122.GG
The monotypic genus Damora (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) contains a single species, Damora sagana, which is widely distributed across southern China. Herein, its complete mitogenome was sequenced to further understand lepidopteran mitogenome characteristics, reconstruct the nymphalid family phylogeny, and infer the subdivision of Heliconiinae species. The circular mitogenome was 15,151 bp long, abundant in A and T, and comprised of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and one control region with a gene arrangement typical of lepidopteran mitogenomes. ATN codons initiated all PCGs, except cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), which was initiated by a CGA sequence as has been observed in other lepidopterans. Three PCGs (COX1, COX2 and ND4) employed a single T termination signal, whereas others had the typical complete termination codon (TAA). All tRNA genes were folded into the typical cloverleaf structure except for tRNA-Ser (AGN). The A+T-rich region included the conserved motif 'ATAGA' followed by a 17 bp poly-T stretch, which was also observed in tribe Argynnini mitogenomes. A phylogenetic tree was constructed via multiple methods using the 13 PCGs data of D. sagana and other available mitogenomes of nymphalid species. All three phylogenetic trees yielded the same topology. These results were consistent with those from previous studies of most major nymphalid groups, except those regarding tribe subdivision in certain subfamilies such as Argynnini + (Acraeini + Heliconiini) for Heliconiine. Furthermore, our analyses identified that the genus Cethosia was grouped with the genus Acraea composing the tribe Acraeini with strong support.