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Flavor Alterations Associated with Miracle Fruit and Gymnema sylvestre.
Chem Senses. 2018 08 24; 43(7):481-488.CS

Abstract

Taste and flavor (retronasal olfaction) interact in the brain. The rules of that interaction are not well understood. This study uses 2 taste modifiers that alter sweet to examine the effects on flavors. Subjects used the Global Sensory Intensity Scale to assess the aroma, sweetness, sourness, and flavor of 10 foods. As previous work had shown, miracle fruit added sweetness to acids, which secondarily reduced sourness (mixture suppression) and Gymnema sylvestre reduced sweetness in sweet foods as well as the sweetness induced by miracle fruit. In this study, multiple regression showed that both sweet and sour contribute to flavor. Gymnema sylvestre reduced the perceived sweet of predominantly sweet foods (chocolate and maple syrup) as expected; reducing the sweet, reduced the flavor. The effects of miracle fruit were complicated by its dual action: intensification of sweet and reduction of sour. Predominantly sour foods (vinegar, lemon, mustard, pickle) were sweetened by miracle fruit but any flavor enhancement associated with the added sweet appears to have been countered by the flavor reduction associated with reduced sourness. Moderately sour foods that are also sweet (tomatoes, strawberries) were sweetened by miracle fruit and thus flavor was enhanced; flavor loss through sour reduction was apparently not sufficient to counter the flavor enhancement due to increased sweet so the net result was that tomato and strawberry flavors were enhanced. The flavors of control foods (not predominantly sweet or sour [sausage, peanuts]) showed only small changes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD, USA.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.Department of Environmental Horticulture, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.BioSciences and Sweetness Research, Coca-Cola, Atlanta, GA, USA.Merieux NutriSciences, Gainesville, FL, USA.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29905783

Citation

Hudson, Sonia D., et al. "Flavor Alterations Associated With Miracle Fruit and Gymnema Sylvestre." Chemical Senses, vol. 43, no. 7, 2018, pp. 481-488.
Hudson SD, Sims CA, Odabasi AZ, et al. Flavor Alterations Associated with Miracle Fruit and Gymnema sylvestre. Chem Senses. 2018;43(7):481-488.
Hudson, S. D., Sims, C. A., Odabasi, A. Z., Colquhoun, T. A., Snyder, D. J., Stamps, J. J., Dotson, S. C., Puentes, L., & Bartoshuk, L. M. (2018). Flavor Alterations Associated with Miracle Fruit and Gymnema sylvestre. Chemical Senses, 43(7), 481-488. https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjy032
Hudson SD, et al. Flavor Alterations Associated With Miracle Fruit and Gymnema Sylvestre. Chem Senses. 2018 08 24;43(7):481-488. PubMed PMID: 29905783.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Flavor Alterations Associated with Miracle Fruit and Gymnema sylvestre. AU - Hudson,Sonia D, AU - Sims,Charles A, AU - Odabasi,Asli Z, AU - Colquhoun,Thomas A, AU - Snyder,Derek J, AU - Stamps,Jennifer J, AU - Dotson,Shawn C, AU - Puentes,Lorenzo, AU - Bartoshuk,Linda M, PY - 2018/6/16/pubmed PY - 2019/6/25/medline PY - 2018/6/16/entrez SP - 481 EP - 488 JF - Chemical senses JO - Chem Senses VL - 43 IS - 7 N2 - Taste and flavor (retronasal olfaction) interact in the brain. The rules of that interaction are not well understood. This study uses 2 taste modifiers that alter sweet to examine the effects on flavors. Subjects used the Global Sensory Intensity Scale to assess the aroma, sweetness, sourness, and flavor of 10 foods. As previous work had shown, miracle fruit added sweetness to acids, which secondarily reduced sourness (mixture suppression) and Gymnema sylvestre reduced sweetness in sweet foods as well as the sweetness induced by miracle fruit. In this study, multiple regression showed that both sweet and sour contribute to flavor. Gymnema sylvestre reduced the perceived sweet of predominantly sweet foods (chocolate and maple syrup) as expected; reducing the sweet, reduced the flavor. The effects of miracle fruit were complicated by its dual action: intensification of sweet and reduction of sour. Predominantly sour foods (vinegar, lemon, mustard, pickle) were sweetened by miracle fruit but any flavor enhancement associated with the added sweet appears to have been countered by the flavor reduction associated with reduced sourness. Moderately sour foods that are also sweet (tomatoes, strawberries) were sweetened by miracle fruit and thus flavor was enhanced; flavor loss through sour reduction was apparently not sufficient to counter the flavor enhancement due to increased sweet so the net result was that tomato and strawberry flavors were enhanced. The flavors of control foods (not predominantly sweet or sour [sausage, peanuts]) showed only small changes. SN - 1464-3553 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29905783/Flavor_Alterations_Associated_with_Miracle_Fruit_and_Gymnema_sylvestre_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/chemse/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/chemse/bjy032 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -