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Pharmacological and toxicological study of a chemical-standardized ethanol extract of the branches and leaves from Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. (Fabaceae).
J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Oct 05; 224:314-322.JE

Abstract

Eysenhardtia polystachya is used for the empirical treatment of cancer, infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. This study identified, using GC-MS, the main chemical components in an ethanol extract of E. polystachya branches and leaves (EPE) and tested its cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects. The in vitro and in vivo toxicity of EPE was evaluated using the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the acute toxicity test in mice, respectively. The cytotoxic and the antimicrobial effects were performed using the MTT assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test, respectively. The levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages were measured to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of EPE. The antidiarrheal (castor oil test, small intestine transit, and castor oil-induced enteropooling), and anti-inflammatory activities (TPA and carrageenan) of EPE were also performed. The antinociceptive actions of EPE were carried out with the following tests: acetic acid, formalin, and hot plate. The hypnotic and locomotor effects were analyzed using pentobarbital and a rotarod system, respectively. The main component in EPE was D-pinitol (26.93%). The antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effects of D-pinitol were also evaluated. EPE showed low in vitro toxicity (DNA damage in PBMC at concentrations higher than 200 µg/ml), and low in vivo toxicity (LD50 > 2000 mg/kg i.p. and p.o.). Furthermore, EPE lacked cytotoxic activity (IC50 > 300 µg/ml) on human cancer cells, but showed good antimicrobial effects in E. coli (MIC=1.56 µg/ml) and S. aureus (MIC = 0.78 µg/ml). In multi-drug resistant microorganisms, EPE showed MIC> 100 µg/ml. EPE exerted in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, mainly, by the decrease in the production of H2O2 (IC50 = 43.9 ± 3.8 µg/ml), and IL-6 (73.3 ± 6.9 µg/ml). EPE (ED50 =7.5 ± 0.9 mg/kg) and D-pinitol (ED50 = 0.1 ± 0.03 mg/kg) showed antidiarrheal activity, and antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid test with ED50 = 117 ± 14.5 mg/kg for EPE and 33 ± 3.2 mg/kg for D-pinitol. EPE showed also antinociceptive activity in the phase 2 of the formalin test (ED50 = 48.9 ± 3.9 mg/kg), without inducing hypnotic effects or altering the locomotor activity in mice. The results here presented corroborate the folk medicinal use of Eysenhardtia polystachya in the treatment of infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. D-pinitol, the main metabolite of EPE, showed antinociceptive and antidiarrheal effects with similar potency compared to standard drugs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departamento de Farmacia, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico. Electronic address: angeljosabad@ugto.mx.Departamento de Farmacia, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico.Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico.Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico.Departamento de Farmacia, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico.Departamento de Farmacia, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico.Departamento de Farmacia, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico.Departamento de Farmacia, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico.Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria de la Zona Huasteca, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí, Mexico.Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, Mexico.Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria de la Zona Huasteca, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Electronic address: candy.carranza@uaslp.mx.Centro Universitario de los Altos, Universidad de Guadalajara, Tepetitlán de Morelos, Jalisco, Mexico.Hospital Central Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto, San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29913299

Citation

Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad, et al. "Pharmacological and Toxicological Study of a Chemical-standardized Ethanol Extract of the Branches and Leaves From Eysenhardtia Polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. (Fabaceae)." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 224, 2018, pp. 314-322.
Alonso-Castro AJ, Zapata-Morales JR, Arana-Argáez V, et al. Pharmacological and toxicological study of a chemical-standardized ethanol extract of the branches and leaves from Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. (Fabaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;224:314-322.
Alonso-Castro, A. J., Zapata-Morales, J. R., Arana-Argáez, V., Torres-Romero, J. C., Ramírez-Villanueva, E., Pérez-Medina, S. E., Ramírez-Morales, M. A., Juárez-Méndez, M. A., Infante-Barrios, Y. P., Martínez-Gutiérrez, F., Carranza-Álvarez, C., Isiordia-Espinoza, M. A., & Flores-Santos, A. (2018). Pharmacological and toxicological study of a chemical-standardized ethanol extract of the branches and leaves from Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. (Fabaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 224, 314-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.06.016
Alonso-Castro AJ, et al. Pharmacological and Toxicological Study of a Chemical-standardized Ethanol Extract of the Branches and Leaves From Eysenhardtia Polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. (Fabaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Oct 5;224:314-322. PubMed PMID: 29913299.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pharmacological and toxicological study of a chemical-standardized ethanol extract of the branches and leaves from Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. (Fabaceae). AU - Alonso-Castro,Angel Josabad, AU - Zapata-Morales,Juan Ramón, AU - Arana-Argáez,Victor, AU - Torres-Romero,Julio Cesar, AU - Ramírez-Villanueva,Eyra, AU - Pérez-Medina,Sabino Eduardo, AU - Ramírez-Morales,Marco Antonio, AU - Juárez-Méndez,Mario Alberto, AU - Infante-Barrios,Yessica Paola, AU - Martínez-Gutiérrez,Fidel, AU - Carranza-Álvarez,Candy, AU - Isiordia-Espinoza,Mario Alberto, AU - Flores-Santos,Andrés, Y1 - 2018/06/18/ PY - 2017/11/24/received PY - 2018/05/21/revised PY - 2018/06/14/accepted PY - 2018/6/19/pubmed PY - 2018/11/14/medline PY - 2018/6/19/entrez KW - Anti-inflammatory KW - Antidiarrheal KW - Antinociceptive KW - D-pinitol (PubChem CID:164619) KW - Eysenhardtia polystachya KW - Tramadol hydrochloride (PubChem CID:63013) KW - and ondansetron (PubChem CID:4595) KW - clonazepam (PubChem CID:2802) KW - dimethyl sulfoxide (PubChem CID:679) KW - glibenclamide (PubChem CID:3488) KW - loperamide hydrochloride (PubChem CID:71420) KW - naloxone (PubChem CID:5464092) KW - naproxen sodium (PubChem CID: 23681059) KW - pentobarbital (PubChem CID: 4737) SP - 314 EP - 322 JF - Journal of ethnopharmacology JO - J Ethnopharmacol VL - 224 N2 - Eysenhardtia polystachya is used for the empirical treatment of cancer, infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. This study identified, using GC-MS, the main chemical components in an ethanol extract of E. polystachya branches and leaves (EPE) and tested its cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects. The in vitro and in vivo toxicity of EPE was evaluated using the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the acute toxicity test in mice, respectively. The cytotoxic and the antimicrobial effects were performed using the MTT assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test, respectively. The levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages were measured to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of EPE. The antidiarrheal (castor oil test, small intestine transit, and castor oil-induced enteropooling), and anti-inflammatory activities (TPA and carrageenan) of EPE were also performed. The antinociceptive actions of EPE were carried out with the following tests: acetic acid, formalin, and hot plate. The hypnotic and locomotor effects were analyzed using pentobarbital and a rotarod system, respectively. The main component in EPE was D-pinitol (26.93%). The antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effects of D-pinitol were also evaluated. EPE showed low in vitro toxicity (DNA damage in PBMC at concentrations higher than 200 µg/ml), and low in vivo toxicity (LD50 > 2000 mg/kg i.p. and p.o.). Furthermore, EPE lacked cytotoxic activity (IC50 > 300 µg/ml) on human cancer cells, but showed good antimicrobial effects in E. coli (MIC=1.56 µg/ml) and S. aureus (MIC = 0.78 µg/ml). In multi-drug resistant microorganisms, EPE showed MIC> 100 µg/ml. EPE exerted in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, mainly, by the decrease in the production of H2O2 (IC50 = 43.9 ± 3.8 µg/ml), and IL-6 (73.3 ± 6.9 µg/ml). EPE (ED50 =7.5 ± 0.9 mg/kg) and D-pinitol (ED50 = 0.1 ± 0.03 mg/kg) showed antidiarrheal activity, and antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid test with ED50 = 117 ± 14.5 mg/kg for EPE and 33 ± 3.2 mg/kg for D-pinitol. EPE showed also antinociceptive activity in the phase 2 of the formalin test (ED50 = 48.9 ± 3.9 mg/kg), without inducing hypnotic effects or altering the locomotor activity in mice. The results here presented corroborate the folk medicinal use of Eysenhardtia polystachya in the treatment of infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. D-pinitol, the main metabolite of EPE, showed antinociceptive and antidiarrheal effects with similar potency compared to standard drugs. SN - 1872-7573 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29913299/Pharmacological_and_toxicological_study_of_a_chemical_standardized_ethanol_extract_of_the_branches_and_leaves_from_Eysenhardtia_polystachya__Ortega__Sarg___Fabaceae__ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-8741(17)34267-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -