Maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes among different types of hypertensive disorders associating pregnancy needing intensive care management.J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020 Jan; 33(2):314-321.JM
Objective: To assess the relationship between maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes and different forms of hypertensive disorders associating pregnancy in women needed intensive care units (ICUs) admission.Methods: A prospective case control study was conducted on 1238 women admitted to hypertensive ICU at three university hospitals. They were classified into four groups. Group I included 472 women with severe preeclampsia (PE), Group II included 243 women with eclampsia (E), Group III included 396 women diagnosed with E associated with HELLP syndrome, and Group IV included 127 women diagnosed as HELLP syndrome. All women received magnesium sulfate to prevent and/or control convulsions and nifedipine to control their blood pressure. Primary outcome parameter was maternal mortality. Other outcomes included maternal morbidities, fetal, and neonatal outcomes.Results: There was a significant difference among the study groups regarding the need for blood transfusion (58.1%, 70%, 84.3%, and 42.5% respectively, p < .001), number of transferred units (2.4 ± 1, 2.9 ± 0.9, 3.4 ± 1.1, and 3.5 ± 0.8 respectively, p < .001), placental abruption (23.3%, 16.5%, 30.3%, and 19.7% respectively, p < .001), pulmonary edema (14.8%, 22.6%, 19.9%, and 34.6% respectively, p < .001), multiple complications (12.5%, 12.3%, 19.9%, and 26% respectively, p < .001), and maternal mortality (1.9%, 4.1%, 6.1%, and 5.5% respectively, p < .001). Regarding fetal and neonatal outcomes, there was a significant difference among the four groups regarding Apgar score at 1 and 5 min, neonatal birth weight, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, NICU admission days, intrauterine growth restriction, perinatal death, respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, and the need for mechanical ventilation (p < .001). Higher rate of vaginal delivery was reported in women with HELLP (40.9%) and severe PE (39.8%) and higher rates of performing cesarean section (CS) in women with eclampsia (77.8%). Maternal mortality is significantly related to delivery with CS, younger maternal age with lower parity, and the presence of placental abruption or pulmonary edema. For Groups III and IV, which included HELLP cases, there are significant differences between both groups as regards HELLP classes according to Mississippi classification, also significant differences were seen between both groups as regards, maternal mortality, abruptio placenta, pulmonary edema, multiple organ damage, NICU admission, perinatal deaths, and need for mechanical ventilation.Conclusion: Both maternal mortality and morbidity (placental abruption and need for blood transfusion) are significantly higher in women with HELLP syndrome worsens to become class 1 regardless of whether eclampsia is present or not.Synopsis: Maternal mortality and unfavorable outcome are significantly higher in women with HELLP syndrome whether it was associated with eclampsia or not.