Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Modeling of Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency and the Enzyme Replacement Therapy Olipudase Alfa Is an Innovative Tool for Linking Pathophysiology and Pharmacology.CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol. 2018 07; 7(7):442-452.CP
Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder with heterogeneous clinical manifestations, including hepatosplenomegaly and infiltrative pulmonary disease, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Olipudase alfa (recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase) is an enzyme replacement therapy under development for the non-neurological manifestations of ASMD. We present a quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) model supporting the clinical development of olipudase alfa. The model is multiscale and mechanistic, linking the enzymatic deficiency driving the disease to molecular-level, cellular-level, and organ-level effects. Model development was informed by natural history, and preclinical and clinical studies. By considering patient-specific pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles and indicators of disease severity, the model describes pharmacodynamic (PD) and clinical end points for individual patients. The ASMD QSP model provides a platform for quantitatively assessing systemic pharmacological effects in adult and pediatric patients, and explaining variability within and across these patient populations, thereby supporting the extrapolation of treatment response from adults to pediatrics.