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Anchored phylogenomics illuminates the skipper butterfly tree of life.
BMC Evol Biol. 2018 06 19; 18(1):101.BE

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Butterflies (Papilionoidea) are perhaps the most charismatic insect lineage, yet phylogenetic relationships among them remain incompletely studied and controversial. This is especially true for skippers (Hesperiidae), one of the most species-rich and poorly studied butterfly families.

METHODS

To infer a robust phylogenomic hypothesis for Hesperiidae, we sequenced nearly 400 loci using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment and sampled all tribes and more than 120 genera of skippers. Molecular datasets were analyzed using maximum-likelihood, parsimony and coalescent multi-species phylogenetic methods.

RESULTS

All analyses converged on a novel, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for skippers. Different optimality criteria and methodologies recovered almost identical phylogenetic trees with strong nodal support at nearly all nodes and all taxonomic levels. Our results support Coeliadinae as the sister group to the remaining skippers, the monotypic Euschemoninae as the sister group to all other subfamilies but Coeliadinae, and the monophyly of Eudaminae plus Pyrginae. Within Pyrginae, Celaenorrhinini and Tagiadini are sister groups, the Neotropical firetips, Pyrrhopygini, are sister to all other tribes but Celaenorrhinini and Tagiadini. Achlyodini is recovered as the sister group to Carcharodini, and Erynnini as sister group to Pyrgini. Within the grass skippers (Hesperiinae), there is strong support for the monophyly of Aeromachini plus remaining Hesperiinae. The giant skippers (Agathymus and Megathymus) once classified as a subfamily, are recovered as monophyletic with strong support, but are deeply nested within Hesperiinae.

CONCLUSIONS

Anchored Hybrid Enrichment sequencing resulted in a large amount of data that built the foundation for a new, robust evolutionary tree of skippers. The newly inferred phylogenetic tree resolves long-standing systematic issues and changes our understanding of the skipper tree of life. These resultsenhance understanding of the evolution of one of the most species-rich butterfly families.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, USA. Emmanuel.touss1@gmail.com.Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, USA. , RAPiD Genomics 747 SW 2nd Avenue IMB#14, Gainesville, FL, 32601, USA.Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, USA.Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, USA.Evolution and Ecology Group, Department of Biology, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN, 37132, USA.The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, USA.Arthropoda Department, Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Adenauer Allee 160, 53113, Bonn, Germany.Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA.Biology Department, City College of New York, City University of New York, New York, NY, 10031, USA. Ph.D. Program in Biology, Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY, 10016, USA. Entomology Section, National Museum of the Philippines, 1000, Manila, Philippines.Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29921227

Citation

Toussaint, Emmanuel F A., et al. "Anchored Phylogenomics Illuminates the Skipper Butterfly Tree of Life." BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 18, no. 1, 2018, p. 101.
Toussaint EFA, Breinholt JW, Earl C, et al. Anchored phylogenomics illuminates the skipper butterfly tree of life. BMC Evol Biol. 2018;18(1):101.
Toussaint, E. F. A., Breinholt, J. W., Earl, C., Warren, A. D., Brower, A. V. Z., Yago, M., Dexter, K. M., Espeland, M., Pierce, N. E., Lohman, D. J., & Kawahara, A. Y. (2018). Anchored phylogenomics illuminates the skipper butterfly tree of life. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 18(1), 101. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-018-1216-z
Toussaint EFA, et al. Anchored Phylogenomics Illuminates the Skipper Butterfly Tree of Life. BMC Evol Biol. 2018 06 19;18(1):101. PubMed PMID: 29921227.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Anchored phylogenomics illuminates the skipper butterfly tree of life. AU - Toussaint,Emmanuel F A, AU - Breinholt,Jesse W, AU - Earl,Chandra, AU - Warren,Andrew D, AU - Brower,Andrew V Z, AU - Yago,Masaya, AU - Dexter,Kelly M, AU - Espeland,Marianne, AU - Pierce,Naomi E, AU - Lohman,David J, AU - Kawahara,Akito Y, Y1 - 2018/06/19/ PY - 2017/10/11/received PY - 2018/06/07/accepted PY - 2018/6/21/entrez PY - 2018/6/21/pubmed PY - 2018/10/16/medline KW - Anchored hybrid enrichment KW - Butterfly phylogenomics KW - Coalescent multi-species KW - Hesperiidae KW - Lepidoptera KW - Maximum likelihood KW - Molecular systematics KW - Papilionoidea KW - Parsimony KW - Target capture SP - 101 EP - 101 JF - BMC evolutionary biology JO - BMC Evol Biol VL - 18 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Butterflies (Papilionoidea) are perhaps the most charismatic insect lineage, yet phylogenetic relationships among them remain incompletely studied and controversial. This is especially true for skippers (Hesperiidae), one of the most species-rich and poorly studied butterfly families. METHODS: To infer a robust phylogenomic hypothesis for Hesperiidae, we sequenced nearly 400 loci using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment and sampled all tribes and more than 120 genera of skippers. Molecular datasets were analyzed using maximum-likelihood, parsimony and coalescent multi-species phylogenetic methods. RESULTS: All analyses converged on a novel, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for skippers. Different optimality criteria and methodologies recovered almost identical phylogenetic trees with strong nodal support at nearly all nodes and all taxonomic levels. Our results support Coeliadinae as the sister group to the remaining skippers, the monotypic Euschemoninae as the sister group to all other subfamilies but Coeliadinae, and the monophyly of Eudaminae plus Pyrginae. Within Pyrginae, Celaenorrhinini and Tagiadini are sister groups, the Neotropical firetips, Pyrrhopygini, are sister to all other tribes but Celaenorrhinini and Tagiadini. Achlyodini is recovered as the sister group to Carcharodini, and Erynnini as sister group to Pyrgini. Within the grass skippers (Hesperiinae), there is strong support for the monophyly of Aeromachini plus remaining Hesperiinae. The giant skippers (Agathymus and Megathymus) once classified as a subfamily, are recovered as monophyletic with strong support, but are deeply nested within Hesperiinae. CONCLUSIONS: Anchored Hybrid Enrichment sequencing resulted in a large amount of data that built the foundation for a new, robust evolutionary tree of skippers. The newly inferred phylogenetic tree resolves long-standing systematic issues and changes our understanding of the skipper tree of life. These resultsenhance understanding of the evolution of one of the most species-rich butterfly families. SN - 1471-2148 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29921227/Anchored_phylogenomics_illuminates_the_skipper_butterfly_tree_of_life_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -