Responses of nonenzymatic antioxidants to atrazine in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of Medicago sativa L.Mycorrhiza. 2018 Aug; 28(5-6):567-571.M
Atrazine induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are detoxified by enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms in plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve on this first level of plant resistance to environmental stresses through the antioxidant defense system, but the way in which nonenzymatic antioxidants relate to atrazine in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots is not well-known. In this study, a symbiotic relationship between Funneliformis mosseae and Medicago sativa L. roots was established successfully. Then, a non-targeted metabolite analysis which was hypothesis-free concerning particular metabolites was used to provide a comprehensive metabolic fingerprint and to subsequently identify, quantify, and finally find different nonenzymatic antioxidants in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots following atrazine addition. Tocotrienol, (iso)flavonoids, and their derivate concentrations in F. mosseae-M. sativa mycorrhizal roots were significantly higher than in non-mycorrhizal roots. The majority of (iso)flavonoids and their derivates increased significantly via methylation or glycosylation, but dehydroascorbic acid in its oxidized form decreased significantly in mycorrhizal roots. In general, F. mosseae colonization results in significantly greater nonenzymatic antioxidant tocotrienol and (iso)flavonoids derivate concentrations in M. sativa roots, which may be associated with resistance to atrazine.