Microwave-assisted one-pot conversion of agro-industrial wastes into levulinic acid: An alternate approach.Bioresour Technol 2018; 265:471-479BT
Brewery liquid waste (BLW), brewery spent grain (BSG), apple pomace solid wastes (APS), apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and starch industry waste (SIW) were evaluated as alternative feedstocks for levulinic acid (LA) production via microwave-assisted acid-catalyzed thermal hydrolysis. LA production of 204, 160, 66, 49 and 12 g/kg was observed for BLW, BSG, APS, APUS, and SIW, respectively, at 140 °C, 40 g/L substrate concentration (SC), 60 min and 2 N HCl (acid concentration). Based on the screening studies, BLW and BSG were selected for optimization studies using response surface methodology. Maximum LA production of 409 and 341 g/kg for BLW and BSG, respectively were obtained at 160 °C, 4.5 M HCl, 85 g/L SC and 27.5 min. Results demonstrated the possibility of using brewery wastes as promising substrates for economical and higher yield production of LA, a renewable platform chemical and versatile precursor for fuels and chemicals.