Bone mineral density loss in patients with cirrhosis.Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2018 Nov-Dec; 24(6):342-347.SJ
Evidence of increased risk of osteoporosis and osteopenia in chronic liver disease and cirrhosis is inconsistent. This study aims to investigate this relationship and to identify the predictors of increased loss of bone mineral density in Saudi patients.
Patients and Methods
One hundred and sixty-four patients and controls who are age and gender matched, were included in this study with 1:1 ratio. Patients' included in this study were adults with confirmed liver cirrhosis. Bone mineral densitometry (BMD) at both lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) were collected for both groups. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of BMD loss.
Results showed that cirrhotic patients are at higher risk of developing osteoporosis or osteopenia at LS (OR 2.23, 95% CI [1.19-4.19], P = 0.01) but not at FN, when compared to control sample. Patients with cirrhosis were found to have lower vitamin D and PTH levels (P = 0.0005) and (P = 0.006), respectively. Of the possible predictors tested (gender, age, body mass index [BMI], phosphorus, calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, and Model for End Stage Liver Disease [MELD] score), female gender was the main predictor of loss of BMD at LS only (OR 4.80, 95% CI [1.47-15.73], P = 0.01).
The study showed that cirrhotic patients are at increased susceptibility of having decreased BMD, particularly at the LS and it highlights the need for preventive measures, especially for female patients.