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In-situ electrochemical Fe(VI) for removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water: comparing dosing of the ferrate ion by electrochemical and chemical means.
J Water Health. 2018 Jun; 16(3):414-424.JW

Abstract

Harmful algal blooms (HAB) release microtoxins that contaminate drinking water supplies and risk the health of millions annually. Crystalline ferrate(VI) is a powerful oxidant capable of removing algal microtoxins. We investigate in-situ electrochemically produced ferrate from common carbon steel as an on-demand alternative to crystalline ferrate for the removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and compare the removal efficacy for both electrochemical (EC) and chemical dosing methodologies. We report that a very low dose of EC-ferrate in deionized water (0.5 mg FeO42- L-1) oxidizes MC-LR (MC-LR0 = 10 μg L-1) to below the guideline limit (1.0 μg L-1) within 10 minutes' contact time. With bicarbonate or natural organic matter (NOM), doses of 2.0-5.0 mg FeO42- L-1 are required, with lower efficacy of EC-ferrate than crystalline ferrate due to loss of EC-ferrate by water oxidation. To evaluate the EC-ferrate process to concurrently oxidize micropollutants, coagulate NOM, and disinfect drinking water, we spiked NOM-containing real water with MC-LR and Escherichia coli, finding that EC-ferrate is effective at 10.0 mg FeO42- L-1 under normal operation or 2.0 mg FeO42- L-1 if the test water has initial pH optimized. We suggest in-situ EC-ferrate may be appropriate for sporadic HAB events in small water systems as a primary or back-up technology.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada E-mail: madjid.mohseni@ubc.ca.Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada E-mail: madjid.mohseni@ubc.ca.Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada E-mail: madjid.mohseni@ubc.ca.Water and Aquatic Sciences Research Program, Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada E-mail: madjid.mohseni@ubc.ca.Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada E-mail: madjid.mohseni@ubc.ca.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29952330

Citation

Dubrawski, K L., et al. "In-situ Electrochemical Fe(VI) for Removal of microcystin-LR From Drinking Water: Comparing Dosing of the Ferrate Ion By Electrochemical and Chemical Means." Journal of Water and Health, vol. 16, no. 3, 2018, pp. 414-424.
Dubrawski KL, Cataldo M, Dubrawski Z, et al. In-situ electrochemical Fe(VI) for removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water: comparing dosing of the ferrate ion by electrochemical and chemical means. J Water Health. 2018;16(3):414-424.
Dubrawski, K. L., Cataldo, M., Dubrawski, Z., Mazumder, A., Wilkinson, D. P., & Mohseni, M. (2018). In-situ electrochemical Fe(VI) for removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water: comparing dosing of the ferrate ion by electrochemical and chemical means. Journal of Water and Health, 16(3), 414-424. https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2018.187
Dubrawski KL, et al. In-situ Electrochemical Fe(VI) for Removal of microcystin-LR From Drinking Water: Comparing Dosing of the Ferrate Ion By Electrochemical and Chemical Means. J Water Health. 2018;16(3):414-424. PubMed PMID: 29952330.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - In-situ electrochemical Fe(VI) for removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water: comparing dosing of the ferrate ion by electrochemical and chemical means. AU - Dubrawski,K L, AU - Cataldo,M, AU - Dubrawski,Z, AU - Mazumder,A, AU - Wilkinson,D P, AU - Mohseni,M, PY - 2018/6/29/entrez PY - 2018/6/29/pubmed PY - 2018/10/5/medline SP - 414 EP - 424 JF - Journal of water and health JO - J Water Health VL - 16 IS - 3 N2 - Harmful algal blooms (HAB) release microtoxins that contaminate drinking water supplies and risk the health of millions annually. Crystalline ferrate(VI) is a powerful oxidant capable of removing algal microtoxins. We investigate in-situ electrochemically produced ferrate from common carbon steel as an on-demand alternative to crystalline ferrate for the removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and compare the removal efficacy for both electrochemical (EC) and chemical dosing methodologies. We report that a very low dose of EC-ferrate in deionized water (0.5 mg FeO42- L-1) oxidizes MC-LR (MC-LR0 = 10 μg L-1) to below the guideline limit (1.0 μg L-1) within 10 minutes' contact time. With bicarbonate or natural organic matter (NOM), doses of 2.0-5.0 mg FeO42- L-1 are required, with lower efficacy of EC-ferrate than crystalline ferrate due to loss of EC-ferrate by water oxidation. To evaluate the EC-ferrate process to concurrently oxidize micropollutants, coagulate NOM, and disinfect drinking water, we spiked NOM-containing real water with MC-LR and Escherichia coli, finding that EC-ferrate is effective at 10.0 mg FeO42- L-1 under normal operation or 2.0 mg FeO42- L-1 if the test water has initial pH optimized. We suggest in-situ EC-ferrate may be appropriate for sporadic HAB events in small water systems as a primary or back-up technology. SN - 1477-8920 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29952330/In_situ_electrochemical_Fe_VI__for_removal_of_microcystin_LR_from_drinking_water:_comparing_dosing_of_the_ferrate_ion_by_electrochemical_and_chemical_means_ L2 - https://iwaponline.com/jwh/article-lookup/doi/10.2166/wh.2018.187 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -