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Examination of Protein Quantity and Protein Distribution across the Day on Ad Libitum Carbohydrate and Fat Intake in Overweight Women.
Curr Dev Nutr. 2017 Dec; 1(12):e001933.CD

Abstract

Background:

The effects of meal-specific protein quantity and protein distribution throughout the day on daily food intake are relatively unknown.

Objectives:

The aims were to test 1) whether the consumption of higher-protein (HP) compared with normal-protein (NP) meals consumed at each eating occasion reduce free-living, daily carbohydrate and fat intakes in overweight women during energy balance conditions and 2) whether the distribution of protein consumed throughout the day affects food intake outcomes.

Methods:

Seventeen women [mean ± SEM age: 33 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 27.8 ± 0.1] completed the following tightly controlled, crossover design study. Participants were provided with and randomly consumed three 6-d eucaloric diets containing NP or HP (15% or 25% of energy as protein, respectively). The protein content within the NP diet used an even distribution pattern (EVEN; 21 ± 1 g protein/meal) throughout the day, whereas the protein contents within the HP diets used either EVEN (35 ± 1 g protein/meal) or an uneven distribution pattern (UNEVEN; 19 ± 1 g protein/breakfast, 26 ± 1 g protein/lunch, 63 g protein/dinner). On day 7 of each diet, the participants were asked to consume the diet-specific absolute protein quantity (in grams) at each eating occasion but were provided with a surplus of carbohydrate- and fat-rich foods to consume, ad libitum, during each eating occasion.

Results:

Eating more protein (HP compared with NP) or evenly distributing protein throughout the day (HP-EVEN compared with HP-UNEVEN) did not reduce the consumption of ad libitum fat- and carbohydrate-rich foods throughout the day (NP-EVEN: 2850 ± 240 kcal/d; HP-EVEN: 2910 ± 240 kcal/d; HP-UNEVEN: 3160 ± 200 kcal/d). Despite the lack of differences in daily energy intake, the breakfast meal within the HP-EVEN diet led to lower ad libitum carbohydrate and fat intakes than the breakfast meals in the NP-EVEN and HP-UNEVEN diet conditions (P < 0.05).

Conclusion:

Providing 30 g protein/meal at each eating occasion throughout the day did not influence free-living, daily intake of highly palatable, carbohydrate- and fat-rich foods in overweight women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02614729.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.Midwest Biomedical Research/Center for Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health, Glen Ellyn, IL.Medical Safety and Surveillance, Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, OH.Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29955692

Citation

Gwin, Jess A., et al. "Examination of Protein Quantity and Protein Distribution Across the Day On Ad Libitum Carbohydrate and Fat Intake in Overweight Women." Current Developments in Nutrition, vol. 1, no. 12, 2017, pp. e001933.
Gwin JA, Maki KC, Alwattar AY, et al. Examination of Protein Quantity and Protein Distribution across the Day on Ad Libitum Carbohydrate and Fat Intake in Overweight Women. Current developments in nutrition. 2017;1(12):e001933.
Gwin, J. A., Maki, K. C., Alwattar, A. Y., & Leidy, H. J. (2017). Examination of Protein Quantity and Protein Distribution across the Day on Ad Libitum Carbohydrate and Fat Intake in Overweight Women. Current Developments in Nutrition, 1(12), e001933. https://doi.org/10.3945/cdn.117.001933
Gwin JA, et al. Examination of Protein Quantity and Protein Distribution Across the Day On Ad Libitum Carbohydrate and Fat Intake in Overweight Women. Current developments in nutrition. 2017;1(12):e001933. PubMed PMID: 29955692.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Examination of Protein Quantity and Protein Distribution across the Day on Ad Libitum Carbohydrate and Fat Intake in Overweight Women. AU - Gwin,Jess A, AU - Maki,Kevin C, AU - Alwattar,Ammar Y, AU - Leidy,Heather J, Y1 - 2017/10/25/ PY - 2017/08/22/received PY - 2017/09/29/revised PY - 2017/10/24/accepted PY - 2018/6/30/entrez PY - 2018/6/30/pubmed PY - 2018/6/30/medline KW - ad libitum KW - food choice KW - food intake KW - high-protein diets KW - overweight KW - protein distribution KW - women SP - e001933 EP - e001933 JF - Current developments in nutrition VL - 1 IS - 12 N2 - Background: The effects of meal-specific protein quantity and protein distribution throughout the day on daily food intake are relatively unknown. Objectives: The aims were to test 1) whether the consumption of higher-protein (HP) compared with normal-protein (NP) meals consumed at each eating occasion reduce free-living, daily carbohydrate and fat intakes in overweight women during energy balance conditions and 2) whether the distribution of protein consumed throughout the day affects food intake outcomes. Methods: Seventeen women [mean ± SEM age: 33 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 27.8 ± 0.1] completed the following tightly controlled, crossover design study. Participants were provided with and randomly consumed three 6-d eucaloric diets containing NP or HP (15% or 25% of energy as protein, respectively). The protein content within the NP diet used an even distribution pattern (EVEN; 21 ± 1 g protein/meal) throughout the day, whereas the protein contents within the HP diets used either EVEN (35 ± 1 g protein/meal) or an uneven distribution pattern (UNEVEN; 19 ± 1 g protein/breakfast, 26 ± 1 g protein/lunch, 63 g protein/dinner). On day 7 of each diet, the participants were asked to consume the diet-specific absolute protein quantity (in grams) at each eating occasion but were provided with a surplus of carbohydrate- and fat-rich foods to consume, ad libitum, during each eating occasion. Results: Eating more protein (HP compared with NP) or evenly distributing protein throughout the day (HP-EVEN compared with HP-UNEVEN) did not reduce the consumption of ad libitum fat- and carbohydrate-rich foods throughout the day (NP-EVEN: 2850 ± 240 kcal/d; HP-EVEN: 2910 ± 240 kcal/d; HP-UNEVEN: 3160 ± 200 kcal/d). Despite the lack of differences in daily energy intake, the breakfast meal within the HP-EVEN diet led to lower ad libitum carbohydrate and fat intakes than the breakfast meals in the NP-EVEN and HP-UNEVEN diet conditions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Providing 30 g protein/meal at each eating occasion throughout the day did not influence free-living, daily intake of highly palatable, carbohydrate- and fat-rich foods in overweight women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02614729. SN - 2475-2991 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29955692/Examination_of_Protein_Quantity_and_Protein_Distribution_across_the_Day_on_Ad_Libitum_Carbohydrate_and_Fat_Intake_in_Overweight_Women_ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/29955692/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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