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Effects of elevated temperature on osmoregulation and stress responses in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in fresh water and seawater.
J Fish Biol 2018; 93(3):550-559JF

Abstract

Smolting in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar is a critical life-history stage that is preparatory for downstream migration and entry to seawater that is regulated by abiotic variables including photoperiod and temperature. The present study was undertaken to determine the interaction of temperature and salinity on salinity tolerance, gill osmoregulatory proteins and cellular and endocrine stress in S. salar smolts. Fish were exposed to rapid changes in temperature (from 14 to 17, 20 and 24°C) in fresh water (FW) and seawater (SW), with and without prior acclimation and sampled after 2 and 8 days. Fish exposed simultaneously to SW and 24°C experienced 100% mortality, whereas no mortality occurred in any of the other groups. The highest temperature also resulted in poor ion regulation in SW with or without prior SW acclimation, whereas no substantial effect was observed in FW. Gill Na+ -K+ -ATPase (NKA) activity increased in SW fish compared to FW fish and decreased with high temperature in both FW and SW. Gill Nkaα1a abundance was high in FW and Nkaα1b and Na+ -K+ -2Cl- cotransporter high in SW, but all three were lower at the highest temperature. Gill Hsp70 levels were elevated in FW and SW at the highest temperature and increased with increasing temperature 2 days following direct transfer to SW. Plasma cortisol levels were elevated in SW at the highest temperature. Our results indicate that there is an important interaction of salinity and elevated temperature on osmoregulatory performance and the cellular stress response in S. salar, with an apparent threshold for osmoregulatory failure in SW above 20°C.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Limnológicas, Laboratorio de Fisiología de Peces, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile. U.S. Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Laboratory, Turners Falls, Massachusetts. Centro Fondap-IDEAL, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.U.S. Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Laboratory, Turners Falls, Massachusetts.U.S. Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Laboratory, Turners Falls, Massachusetts.U.S. Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Laboratory, Turners Falls, Massachusetts. Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29956316

Citation

Vargas-Chacoff, Luis, et al. "Effects of Elevated Temperature On Osmoregulation and Stress Responses in Atlantic Salmon Salmo Salar Smolts in Fresh Water and Seawater." Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 93, no. 3, 2018, pp. 550-559.
Vargas-Chacoff L, Regish AM, Weinstock A, et al. Effects of elevated temperature on osmoregulation and stress responses in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in fresh water and seawater. J Fish Biol. 2018;93(3):550-559.
Vargas-Chacoff, L., Regish, A. M., Weinstock, A., & McCormick, S. D. (2018). Effects of elevated temperature on osmoregulation and stress responses in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in fresh water and seawater. Journal of Fish Biology, 93(3), pp. 550-559. doi:10.1111/jfb.13683.
Vargas-Chacoff L, et al. Effects of Elevated Temperature On Osmoregulation and Stress Responses in Atlantic Salmon Salmo Salar Smolts in Fresh Water and Seawater. J Fish Biol. 2018;93(3):550-559. PubMed PMID: 29956316.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of elevated temperature on osmoregulation and stress responses in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in fresh water and seawater. AU - Vargas-Chacoff,Luis, AU - Regish,Amy M, AU - Weinstock,Andrew, AU - McCormick,Stephen D, PY - 2017/11/14/received PY - 2018/05/04/accepted PY - 2018/6/30/pubmed PY - 2018/12/12/medline PY - 2018/6/30/entrez KW - Salmo salar KW - heat shock protein KW - ion transport KW - salinity KW - smolts SP - 550 EP - 559 JF - Journal of fish biology JO - J. Fish Biol. VL - 93 IS - 3 N2 - Smolting in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar is a critical life-history stage that is preparatory for downstream migration and entry to seawater that is regulated by abiotic variables including photoperiod and temperature. The present study was undertaken to determine the interaction of temperature and salinity on salinity tolerance, gill osmoregulatory proteins and cellular and endocrine stress in S. salar smolts. Fish were exposed to rapid changes in temperature (from 14 to 17, 20 and 24°C) in fresh water (FW) and seawater (SW), with and without prior acclimation and sampled after 2 and 8 days. Fish exposed simultaneously to SW and 24°C experienced 100% mortality, whereas no mortality occurred in any of the other groups. The highest temperature also resulted in poor ion regulation in SW with or without prior SW acclimation, whereas no substantial effect was observed in FW. Gill Na+ -K+ -ATPase (NKA) activity increased in SW fish compared to FW fish and decreased with high temperature in both FW and SW. Gill Nkaα1a abundance was high in FW and Nkaα1b and Na+ -K+ -2Cl- cotransporter high in SW, but all three were lower at the highest temperature. Gill Hsp70 levels were elevated in FW and SW at the highest temperature and increased with increasing temperature 2 days following direct transfer to SW. Plasma cortisol levels were elevated in SW at the highest temperature. Our results indicate that there is an important interaction of salinity and elevated temperature on osmoregulatory performance and the cellular stress response in S. salar, with an apparent threshold for osmoregulatory failure in SW above 20°C. SN - 1095-8649 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29956316/Effects_of_elevated_temperature_on_osmoregulation_and_stress_responses_in_Atlantic_salmon_Salmo_salar_smolts_in_fresh_water_and_seawater_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13683 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -