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The role of the basolateral amygdala and infralimbic cortex in (re)learning extinction.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2019 Jan; 236(1):303-312.P

Abstract

The basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) and infralimbic region of the prefrontal cortex (IL) play distinct roles in the extinction of Pavlovian conditioned fear in laboratory rodents. In the past decade, research in our laboratory has examined the roles of these brain regions in the re-extinction of conditioned fear: i.e., extinction of fear that is restored through re-conditioning of the conditioned stimulus (CS) or changes in the physical and temporal context of extinction training (i.e., extinction of renewed or spontaneously recovered fear). This paper reviews this research. It has revealed two major findings. First, in contrast to the acquisition of fear extinction, which usually requires neuronal activity in the BLA but not IL, the acquisition of fear re-extinction requires neuronal activity in the IL but can occur independently of neuronal activity in the BLA. Second, the role of the IL in fear extinction is determined by the training history of the CS: i.e., if the CS was novel prior to its fear conditioning (i.e., it had not been trained), the acquisition of fear extinction does not require the IL; if, however, the prior training of the CS included a series of CS-alone exposures (e.g., if the CS had been pre-exposed), the acquisition of fear extinction was facilitated by pharmacological stimulation of the IL. Together, these results were taken to imply that a memory of CS-alone exposures is stored in the IL, survives fear conditioning of the CS, and can be retrieved and strengthened during extinction or re-extinction of that CS (regardless of whether the extinction is first- or second-learned). Hence, under these circumstances, the initial extinction of fear to the CS can be facilitated by pharmacological stimulation of the IL, and re-extinction of fear to the CS can occur in the absence of a functioning BLA.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia. nathan.holmes@unsw.edu.au.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29959461

Citation

Lingawi, Nura W., et al. "The Role of the Basolateral Amygdala and Infralimbic Cortex in (re)learning Extinction." Psychopharmacology, vol. 236, no. 1, 2019, pp. 303-312.
Lingawi NW, Laurent V, Westbrook RF, et al. The role of the basolateral amygdala and infralimbic cortex in (re)learning extinction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2019;236(1):303-312.
Lingawi, N. W., Laurent, V., Westbrook, R. F., & Holmes, N. M. (2019). The role of the basolateral amygdala and infralimbic cortex in (re)learning extinction. Psychopharmacology, 236(1), 303-312. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-4957-x
Lingawi NW, et al. The Role of the Basolateral Amygdala and Infralimbic Cortex in (re)learning Extinction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2019;236(1):303-312. PubMed PMID: 29959461.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The role of the basolateral amygdala and infralimbic cortex in (re)learning extinction. AU - Lingawi,Nura W, AU - Laurent,Vincent, AU - Westbrook,R Fredrick, AU - Holmes,Nathan M, Y1 - 2018/06/30/ PY - 2018/04/11/received PY - 2018/06/19/accepted PY - 2018/7/1/pubmed PY - 2019/4/9/medline PY - 2018/7/1/entrez KW - Basolateral amygdala complex KW - Conditioned fear KW - Extinction KW - Infralimbic cortex KW - Learning KW - Relearning SP - 303 EP - 312 JF - Psychopharmacology JO - Psychopharmacology (Berl) VL - 236 IS - 1 N2 - The basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) and infralimbic region of the prefrontal cortex (IL) play distinct roles in the extinction of Pavlovian conditioned fear in laboratory rodents. In the past decade, research in our laboratory has examined the roles of these brain regions in the re-extinction of conditioned fear: i.e., extinction of fear that is restored through re-conditioning of the conditioned stimulus (CS) or changes in the physical and temporal context of extinction training (i.e., extinction of renewed or spontaneously recovered fear). This paper reviews this research. It has revealed two major findings. First, in contrast to the acquisition of fear extinction, which usually requires neuronal activity in the BLA but not IL, the acquisition of fear re-extinction requires neuronal activity in the IL but can occur independently of neuronal activity in the BLA. Second, the role of the IL in fear extinction is determined by the training history of the CS: i.e., if the CS was novel prior to its fear conditioning (i.e., it had not been trained), the acquisition of fear extinction does not require the IL; if, however, the prior training of the CS included a series of CS-alone exposures (e.g., if the CS had been pre-exposed), the acquisition of fear extinction was facilitated by pharmacological stimulation of the IL. Together, these results were taken to imply that a memory of CS-alone exposures is stored in the IL, survives fear conditioning of the CS, and can be retrieved and strengthened during extinction or re-extinction of that CS (regardless of whether the extinction is first- or second-learned). Hence, under these circumstances, the initial extinction of fear to the CS can be facilitated by pharmacological stimulation of the IL, and re-extinction of fear to the CS can occur in the absence of a functioning BLA. SN - 1432-2072 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29959461/The_role_of_the_basolateral_amygdala_and_infralimbic_cortex_in__re_learning_extinction_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-4957-x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -