The prediction of combined toxicity of Cu-Ni for barley using an extended concentration addition model.Environ Pollut. 2018 Nov; 242(Pt A):136-142.EP
Environment pollution often occurs as an obvious combined effect involving two (or more) elements, and this effect changes with the concentrations of the different elements. The effects on barley root elongation were studied in hydroponic systems to investigate the toxicity of Cu-Ni combined at low doses and at a fixed concentration ratio. For low doses of Cu-Ni, the addition of Ni (<0.5 μM) to Cu significantly decreased Cu toxicity for barley, but the addition of Cu (<0.25 μM) had no significant effect on Ni toxicity. At a fixed concentration ratio, according to the single effective concentration (EC) (barley root elongation inhibitory concentration) values of Cu and Ni, five sets of Cu-Ni fixed ratios were used: ECn(Cu)+ECm(Ni) (n + m = 100) (ECn and ECm indicate toxicity unit value for n% and m% inhibition of barley root length, respectively). The calculated toxicity unit value for 50% inhibition of root length ranged from 0.44 to 0.98 (i.e., <1), indicating a synergistic effect. To consider the interactions between the metal ions, the extended concentration addition model (e-CA) was established by integrating the Cu-Ni interaction into the concentration addition model (CA), and the data of two groups (the low doses of Cu-Ni and at a fixed concentration ratio) were respectively fitted. The e-CA accurately predicted the root length of barley under the Cu-Ni combined action. The correlation coefficient (r) and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) between predicted and observed values were 0.97 and 6.6 (low-dose group) and 0.96 and 8.12 (fixed-ratio group), respectively, and e-CA significantly improved the prediction accuracy compared to the traditional CA model without consideration of the Cu-Ni competition (r = 0.89, RMSE = 14.16). The results provided a theoretical basis for evaluation and remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metal composites.