Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) and PARP Inhibitors: Mechanisms of Action and Role in Cardiovascular Disorders.Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2018 12; 18(6):493-506.CT
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an immediate cellular repair response to DNA damage and is catalyzed primarily by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP1), which is the most abundant of the 18 different PARP isoforms and accounts for more than 90% of the catalytic activity of PARP in the cell nucleus. Upon detection of a DNA strand break, PARP1 binds to the DNA, cleaves nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide between nicotinamide and ribose and then modifies the DNA nuclear acceptor proteins by formation of a bond between the protein and the ADP-ribose residue. This generates ribosyl-ribosyl linkages that act as a signal for other DNA-repairing enzymes and DNA base repair. Extensive DNA breakage in cells results in excessive activation of PARP with resultant depletion of the cellular stores of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) which slows the rate of glycolysis, mitochondrial electron transport, and ultimately ATP formation in these cells. This paper focuses on PARP in DNA repair in atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction/reperfusion injury, and congestive heart failure and the role of PARP inhibitors in combating the effects of excessive PARP activation in these diseases. Free oxygen radicals and nitrogen radicals in arteries contribute to disruption of the vascular endothelial glycocalyx, which increase the permeability of the endothelium to inflammatory cells and also low-density lipoproteins and the accumulation of lipid in the vascular intima. Mild inflammation and DNA damage within vascular cells promote PARP1 activation and DNA repair. Moderate DNA damage induces caspase-dependent PARP cleavage and vascular cell apoptosis. Severe DNA damage due to vascular inflammation causes excessive activation of PARP1. This causes endothelial cell depletion of NAD+ and ATP, downregulation of atheroprotective SIRT1, necrotic cell death, and ultimately atherosclerotic plaque disruption. Inhibition of PARP decreases vascular endothelial cell adhesion P-selectin and ICAM-1 molecules, inflammatory cells, pro-death caspase-3, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and upregulates prosurvival extracellular signal-regulated kinases and AKT, which decrease vascular cell apoptosis and necrosis and limit atherosclerosis and plaque disruption. In myocardial infarction with coronary occlusion then reperfusion, which occurs with coronary angioplasty or thrombolytic therapy, reperfusion injury occurs in as many as 31% of patients and is caused by inflammatory cells, free oxygen and nitrogen radicals, the rapid transcriptional activation of inflammatory cytokines, and the activation of PARP1. Inhibition of PARP attenuates neutrophil infiltration and inflammatory cytokine expression in the reperfused myocardium and preserves myocardial NAD+ and ATP. In addition, PARP inhibition increases the activation of myocyte survival enzymes protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), and decreases the activity of myocardial ventricular remodeling enzymes PKCα/β, PKCζ/λ, and PKCδ. As a consequence, cardiomyocyte and vascular endothelial cell necrosis is decreased and myocardial contractility is preserved. In heart failure and circulatory shock in animal models, PARP inhibition significantly attenuates decreases in left ventricular systolic pressure, ventricular contractility and relaxation, stroke volume, and increases survival by limiting or preventing upregulation of adhesion molecules, proinflammatory cytokines, myocardial mononuclear cell infiltration, and PKCα/β and PKC λ/ζ. In this manner, PARP inhibition partially restores the myocardial concentrations of NAD+, limits ventricular remodeling and fibrosis, and prevents significant decreases in myocardial contractility. Based primarily on investigations in preclinical models of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure, PARP inhibition appears to be beneficial in limiting or inhibiting cardiovascular dysfunction. These studies indicate that investigations of acute and chronic PARP inhibition are warranted in patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.