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Severe haemolysis and spherocytosis in a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) and successful treatment with a bivalent whole equine IgG antivenom and blood transfusion.
Toxicon 2018; 151:79-83T

Abstract

This case report describes a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (RBBS; Pseudechis porphriacus) that experienced severe and life-threatening haemolysis. The dog presented with hypersalivation, facial swelling, mildly prolonged activated clotting time and the absence of neurological deficits. Envenomation was confirmed by positive identification of the snake and retrospective measurement of RBBS specific venom antigen (24 ng/mL) in serum. The dog was initially hospitalised, treated with intravenous fluids and one vial of tiger-brown snake antivenom which is recommended for RBBS envenomation in Australia. However, after 3.5 d the dog's PCV had declined to 15% and the dog was dull and tachycardic. A second vial of tiger-brown antivenom followed by a packed red blood cell transfusion was administered. A rapid clinical improvement within 12 h was observed. No free RBBS venom was detected in serum at any time point after the first vial of antivenom. Longitudinal haematology and biochemical profiling was performed to 62 d post-envenomation and revealed a gradual recovery in the haematocrit to normal reference range. Spherocyte numbers on blood smear were highest at 5 d post-envenomation and gradually declined to undetectable after 62 d. This case highlights the potential for unpredictable, severe and life-threatening anaemia resulting from RBBS envenomation in dogs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Pet Intensive Care Unit (Pet ICU), Underwood, Queensland, 4119, Australia.Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, 3010, Australia. Electronic address: andrew.padula@unimelb.edu.au.Pet Intensive Care Unit (Pet ICU), Underwood, Queensland, 4119, Australia.QML Vetnostics, Murarrie, Queensland, 4172, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Case Reports
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29981813

Citation

Lenske, E, et al. "Severe Haemolysis and Spherocytosis in a Dog Envenomed By a Red-bellied Black Snake (Pseudechis Porphyriacus) and Successful Treatment With a Bivalent Whole Equine IgG Antivenom and Blood Transfusion." Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, vol. 151, 2018, pp. 79-83.
Lenske E, Padula AM, Leister E, et al. Severe haemolysis and spherocytosis in a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) and successful treatment with a bivalent whole equine IgG antivenom and blood transfusion. Toxicon. 2018;151:79-83.
Lenske, E., Padula, A. M., Leister, E., & Boyd, S. (2018). Severe haemolysis and spherocytosis in a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) and successful treatment with a bivalent whole equine IgG antivenom and blood transfusion. Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, 151, pp. 79-83. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.07.005.
Lenske E, et al. Severe Haemolysis and Spherocytosis in a Dog Envenomed By a Red-bellied Black Snake (Pseudechis Porphyriacus) and Successful Treatment With a Bivalent Whole Equine IgG Antivenom and Blood Transfusion. Toxicon. 2018 Sep 1;151:79-83. PubMed PMID: 29981813.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Severe haemolysis and spherocytosis in a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) and successful treatment with a bivalent whole equine IgG antivenom and blood transfusion. AU - Lenske,E, AU - Padula,A M, AU - Leister,E, AU - Boyd,S, Y1 - 2018/07/06/ PY - 2018/03/14/received PY - 2018/06/25/revised PY - 2018/07/05/accepted PY - 2018/7/10/pubmed PY - 2018/12/12/medline PY - 2018/7/9/entrez KW - Dog KW - Enzyme immunoassay KW - Haemolysis KW - Pseudechis porphyriacus KW - Red-bellied black snake KW - Snake antivenom KW - Snake venom KW - Snakebite KW - Veterinary SP - 79 EP - 83 JF - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology JO - Toxicon VL - 151 N2 - This case report describes a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (RBBS; Pseudechis porphriacus) that experienced severe and life-threatening haemolysis. The dog presented with hypersalivation, facial swelling, mildly prolonged activated clotting time and the absence of neurological deficits. Envenomation was confirmed by positive identification of the snake and retrospective measurement of RBBS specific venom antigen (24 ng/mL) in serum. The dog was initially hospitalised, treated with intravenous fluids and one vial of tiger-brown snake antivenom which is recommended for RBBS envenomation in Australia. However, after 3.5 d the dog's PCV had declined to 15% and the dog was dull and tachycardic. A second vial of tiger-brown antivenom followed by a packed red blood cell transfusion was administered. A rapid clinical improvement within 12 h was observed. No free RBBS venom was detected in serum at any time point after the first vial of antivenom. Longitudinal haematology and biochemical profiling was performed to 62 d post-envenomation and revealed a gradual recovery in the haematocrit to normal reference range. Spherocyte numbers on blood smear were highest at 5 d post-envenomation and gradually declined to undetectable after 62 d. This case highlights the potential for unpredictable, severe and life-threatening anaemia resulting from RBBS envenomation in dogs. SN - 1879-3150 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29981813/Severe_haemolysis_and_spherocytosis_in_a_dog_envenomed_by_a_red_bellied_black_snake__Pseudechis_porphyriacus__and_successful_treatment_with_a_bivalent_whole_equine_IgG_antivenom_and_blood_transfusion_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-0101(18)30301-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -