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Testing for Metacognitive Responding Using an Odor-based Delayed Match-to-Sample Test in Rats.
J Vis Exp. 2018 06 18JV

Abstract

Metamemory involves the cognitive ability to assess the strength of one's memories. To explore the possibility of metamemory in non-human animals, numerous behavioral tasks have been created, many of which utilize an option to decline memory tests. To assess metamemory in rats, we utilized this decline-test option paradigm by adapting previous visual delayed-match-to-sample tests (DMTS)1,2 developed for primate species to an odor-based test suitable for rodents. First, rats are given a sample to remember by digging in a cup of scented sand. After a delay, the rat is presented with four distinctly scented cups, one of which contains the identical scent experienced during the sample; if this matching cup is selected, then the rat obtains a preferred, larger reward. Selection of any of the other three non-matching sand-filled scented cups results in no reward. Retention intervals are individually titrated such that subjects perform between 40 and 70% correct, therefore ensuring rats sometimes remember and sometimes forget the sample. Here, the operational definition of metamemory is the ability to distinguish between the presence and absence of memory through behavioral responding. Towards this end, on two-thirds of trials, a decline option is presented in addition to the four choice cups (choice trials). If the decline-test option- an unscented colored sand cup, is selected, the subject receives a smaller less-preferred reward and avoids the memory test. On the remaining third of trials, the decline-test option is not available (forced trials), causing subjects to guess the correct cup when the sample is forgotten. On choice tests, subjects that know when they remember should select the decline option when memory is weak rather than take the test and choose incorrectly. Therefore, significantly higher performance on chosen tests as compared to forced memory tests is indicative of the adaptive use of the decline-test response and metacognitive responding.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, Providence College.Department of Psychology, Providence College.Department of Psychology, Providence College.Department of Psychology, Providence College; vtempler@providence.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Video-Audio Media

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29985304

Citation

Lee, Keith A., et al. "Testing for Metacognitive Responding Using an Odor-based Delayed Match-to-Sample Test in Rats." Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE, 2018.
Lee KA, Preston AJ, Wise TB, et al. Testing for Metacognitive Responding Using an Odor-based Delayed Match-to-Sample Test in Rats. J Vis Exp. 2018.
Lee, K. A., Preston, A. J., Wise, T. B., & Templer, V. L. (2018). Testing for Metacognitive Responding Using an Odor-based Delayed Match-to-Sample Test in Rats. Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE, (136). https://doi.org/10.3791/57489
Lee KA, et al. Testing for Metacognitive Responding Using an Odor-based Delayed Match-to-Sample Test in Rats. J Vis Exp. 2018 06 18;(136) PubMed PMID: 29985304.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Testing for Metacognitive Responding Using an Odor-based Delayed Match-to-Sample Test in Rats. AU - Lee,Keith A, AU - Preston,Aidan J, AU - Wise,Taylor B, AU - Templer,Victoria L, Y1 - 2018/06/18/ PY - 2018/7/10/entrez PY - 2018/7/10/pubmed PY - 2018/8/25/medline JF - Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE JO - J Vis Exp IS - 136 N2 - Metamemory involves the cognitive ability to assess the strength of one's memories. To explore the possibility of metamemory in non-human animals, numerous behavioral tasks have been created, many of which utilize an option to decline memory tests. To assess metamemory in rats, we utilized this decline-test option paradigm by adapting previous visual delayed-match-to-sample tests (DMTS)1,2 developed for primate species to an odor-based test suitable for rodents. First, rats are given a sample to remember by digging in a cup of scented sand. After a delay, the rat is presented with four distinctly scented cups, one of which contains the identical scent experienced during the sample; if this matching cup is selected, then the rat obtains a preferred, larger reward. Selection of any of the other three non-matching sand-filled scented cups results in no reward. Retention intervals are individually titrated such that subjects perform between 40 and 70% correct, therefore ensuring rats sometimes remember and sometimes forget the sample. Here, the operational definition of metamemory is the ability to distinguish between the presence and absence of memory through behavioral responding. Towards this end, on two-thirds of trials, a decline option is presented in addition to the four choice cups (choice trials). If the decline-test option- an unscented colored sand cup, is selected, the subject receives a smaller less-preferred reward and avoids the memory test. On the remaining third of trials, the decline-test option is not available (forced trials), causing subjects to guess the correct cup when the sample is forgotten. On choice tests, subjects that know when they remember should select the decline option when memory is weak rather than take the test and choose incorrectly. Therefore, significantly higher performance on chosen tests as compared to forced memory tests is indicative of the adaptive use of the decline-test response and metacognitive responding. SN - 1940-087X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29985304/Testing_for_Metacognitive_Responding_Using_an_Odor_based_Delayed_Match_to_Sample_Test_in_Rats_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -