Current global trends in the incidence of pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease.World J Gastroenterol 2018; 24(25):2741-2763WJ
To perform a comprehensive review and provide an up-to-date synopsis of the incidence and trends of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
We systematically searched the MEDLINE (source PubMed), EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (period: 1985-2018) to identify studies reporting population-based data on the incidence of pediatric-onset (< 19 years at diagnosis) IBD in full manuscripts. Two authors carried out screening and data extraction. Choropleth interactive maps and temporal trends were used to illustrate the international differences and incidences of and changes in IBD and subtypes.
In total, one hundred forty studies reporting data from 38 countries were considered in this review. The highest annual pediatric incidences of IBD were 23/100000 person-years in Europe, 15.2/100000 in North America, and 11.4/100000 in Asia/the Middle East and Oceania. The highest annual incidences of Crohn's disease (CD) were 13.9/100000 in North America and 12.3/100000 in Europe. The highest annual incidences of ulcerative colitis (UC) were 15.0/100000 in Europe and 10.6/100000 in North America. The highest annual incidences of IBD-unclassified (IBD-U) were 3.6/100000 in Europe and 2.1/100000 in North America. In the time-trend analyses, 67% of CD, 46% of UC and 11% of IBD-U studies reported an increasing incidence (P < 0.05). The risk of IBD is increasing among first-generation of migrant populations.
Globally, the incidence of IBD varies greatly by geographical areas. The steadily increasing incidence of pediatric IBD over time indicates its emergence as a global disease, suggesting that studies should investigate the environmental risk factors among pediatric cohorts.