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A pilot study on the disinfection efficacy of localized UV on the flushing-generated spread of pathogens.
J Hazard Mater 2018; 358:389-396JH

Abstract

The process of toilet-flushing can generate flushing-associated water droplets which can potentially expose humans to pathogen-laden aerosols. Very little is known about such aerosol dissemination or the means for minimizing exposure to these aerosols. This study has evaluated the efficacy of ultraviolet waveband C (UV-C) for disinfection of flushing-generated pathogen-laden aerosols through tests with localized disinfection systems for airborne and surface contaminations. Three types of bacteria were chosen for investigation: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium. Tests were conducted with UV-C tubes of 5 W and 10 W. High levels of disinfection efficacies were observed, ranging from 76% to 97% for bacteria-laden aerosols at sources of emission, and efficiencies of 53% to 79% for surface samples in localized systems. The results from the localized systems were further compared with those obtained with an upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) system. As it is important to note, the UV-C doses and ozone emissions for the localized systems were found well below the limits recommended in current guidelines. This research has shown that the disinfection of flushing-generated pathogen-laden aerosols in proximity to the source of emission was more effective than at the more distant sites where aerosols may be dispersed to the environment.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Electronic address: alvinlai@cityu.edu.hk.Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.Shenzhen Key Laboratory for the Sustainable Use of Marine Biodiversity, Research Centre for the Oceans and Human Health, City University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China.Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong; School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30005250

Citation

Lai, A C K., et al. "A Pilot Study On the Disinfection Efficacy of Localized UV On the Flushing-generated Spread of Pathogens." Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 358, 2018, pp. 389-396.
Lai ACK, Nunayon SS, Tan TF, et al. A pilot study on the disinfection efficacy of localized UV on the flushing-generated spread of pathogens. J Hazard Mater. 2018;358:389-396.
Lai, A. C. K., Nunayon, S. S., Tan, T. F., & Li, W. S. (2018). A pilot study on the disinfection efficacy of localized UV on the flushing-generated spread of pathogens. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 358, pp. 389-396. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.003.
Lai ACK, et al. A Pilot Study On the Disinfection Efficacy of Localized UV On the Flushing-generated Spread of Pathogens. J Hazard Mater. 2018 09 15;358:389-396. PubMed PMID: 30005250.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A pilot study on the disinfection efficacy of localized UV on the flushing-generated spread of pathogens. AU - Lai,A C K, AU - Nunayon,S S, AU - Tan,T F, AU - Li,W S, Y1 - 2018/07/03/ PY - 2018/02/05/received PY - 2018/06/25/revised PY - 2018/07/01/accepted PY - 2018/7/14/pubmed PY - 2019/11/8/medline PY - 2018/7/14/entrez KW - Airborne contaminants KW - Flushing-generated water droplets KW - Localized UV-C disinfection KW - Pathogen disinfection KW - Toilet air quality KW - Upper-room germicidal irradiation SP - 389 EP - 396 JF - Journal of hazardous materials JO - J. Hazard. Mater. VL - 358 N2 - The process of toilet-flushing can generate flushing-associated water droplets which can potentially expose humans to pathogen-laden aerosols. Very little is known about such aerosol dissemination or the means for minimizing exposure to these aerosols. This study has evaluated the efficacy of ultraviolet waveband C (UV-C) for disinfection of flushing-generated pathogen-laden aerosols through tests with localized disinfection systems for airborne and surface contaminations. Three types of bacteria were chosen for investigation: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium. Tests were conducted with UV-C tubes of 5 W and 10 W. High levels of disinfection efficacies were observed, ranging from 76% to 97% for bacteria-laden aerosols at sources of emission, and efficiencies of 53% to 79% for surface samples in localized systems. The results from the localized systems were further compared with those obtained with an upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) system. As it is important to note, the UV-C doses and ozone emissions for the localized systems were found well below the limits recommended in current guidelines. This research has shown that the disinfection of flushing-generated pathogen-laden aerosols in proximity to the source of emission was more effective than at the more distant sites where aerosols may be dispersed to the environment. SN - 1873-3336 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30005250/A_pilot_study_on_the_disinfection_efficacy_of_localized_UV_on_the_flushing_generated_spread_of_pathogens_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0304-3894(18)30515-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -