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The occurrence, diversity and blood feeding patterns of potential vectors of dengue and yellow fever in Kacheliba, West Pokot County, Kenya.
Acta Trop. 2018 Oct; 186:50-57.AT

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Yellow fever (YF) and dengue (DEN) viruses are important re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses sharing similar vectors and reservoirs. The last documented YF outbreak in Kenya occurred in 1992-95. However, YF virus is re-emerging in bordering countries including Uganda, Ethiopia and South Sudan with the potential for spread to the neighboring regions in Kenya. Dengue is endemic in Kenya with outbreaks being detected in various towns in the north and the coast. This study reports on the Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquito species occurrence, diversity, and blood feeding patterns, as means of measuring the risk of transmission of YF and DEN in Kacheliba sub-county, West Pokot County, which borders previous YF outbreak areas in eastern Uganda.

METHODOLOGY

Adult mosquitoes were collected using CO2-baited BG Sentinel traps at three time points during the rainy season. Mosquitoes were identified to the species level. Species abundance during the three sampling periods were compared, with emphasis on Aedes aegypti and other Stegomyia species, using generalized linear models that included mosquito diversity. Individually blood-fed mosquitoes were analyzed by DNA amplification of the 12S rRNA gene followed by sequencing to determine the source of blood meal.

RESULTS

Overall, 8605 mosquitoes comprising 22 species in 5 genera were collected. Sampled Stegomyia species included Ae. aegypti (77.3%), Ae. vittatus (11.4%), Ae. metallicus (10.2%) and Ae. unilineatus (1.1%). Ae. aegypti dominated the blood-fed specimens (77%, n = 68) and were found to have fed mostly on rock hyraxes (79%), followed by goats (9%), humans and cattle (each 4%), with a minor proportion on hippopotamus and rock monitor lizards (each comprising 1%).

CONCLUSION

Our findings reveal the presence of important Stegomyia species, which are known potential vectors of YF and DEN viruses. In addition, evidence of more host feeding on wild and domestic animals (hyrax and goat) than humans was observed. How the low feeding on humans translates to risk of transmission of these viruses, remains unclear, but calls for further research including vector competence studies of the mosquito populations for these viruses. This forms part of a comprehensive risk assessment package to guide decisions on implementation of affordable and sustainable vaccination (YF) and vector control plans in West Pokot County, Kenya.

Authors+Show Affiliations

International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya; Center for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria, South Africa. Electronic address: echepkorir@icipe.org.Center for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria, South Africa.Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya.International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya.International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30006028

Citation

Chepkorir, E, et al. "The Occurrence, Diversity and Blood Feeding Patterns of Potential Vectors of Dengue and Yellow Fever in Kacheliba, West Pokot County, Kenya." Acta Tropica, vol. 186, 2018, pp. 50-57.
Chepkorir E, Venter M, Lutomiah J, et al. The occurrence, diversity and blood feeding patterns of potential vectors of dengue and yellow fever in Kacheliba, West Pokot County, Kenya. Acta Trop. 2018;186:50-57.
Chepkorir, E., Venter, M., Lutomiah, J., Mulwa, F., Arum, S., Tchouassi, D. P., & Sang, R. (2018). The occurrence, diversity and blood feeding patterns of potential vectors of dengue and yellow fever in Kacheliba, West Pokot County, Kenya. Acta Tropica, 186, 50-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.07.008
Chepkorir E, et al. The Occurrence, Diversity and Blood Feeding Patterns of Potential Vectors of Dengue and Yellow Fever in Kacheliba, West Pokot County, Kenya. Acta Trop. 2018;186:50-57. PubMed PMID: 30006028.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The occurrence, diversity and blood feeding patterns of potential vectors of dengue and yellow fever in Kacheliba, West Pokot County, Kenya. AU - Chepkorir,E, AU - Venter,M, AU - Lutomiah,J, AU - Mulwa,F, AU - Arum,S, AU - Tchouassi,D P, AU - Sang,R, Y1 - 2018/07/11/ PY - 2018/02/02/received PY - 2018/06/11/revised PY - 2018/07/09/accepted PY - 2018/7/15/pubmed PY - 2018/12/20/medline PY - 2018/7/15/entrez KW - Blood feeding KW - Dengue KW - Stegomyia mosquito abundance and diversity KW - Yellow fever SP - 50 EP - 57 JF - Acta tropica JO - Acta Trop VL - 186 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Yellow fever (YF) and dengue (DEN) viruses are important re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses sharing similar vectors and reservoirs. The last documented YF outbreak in Kenya occurred in 1992-95. However, YF virus is re-emerging in bordering countries including Uganda, Ethiopia and South Sudan with the potential for spread to the neighboring regions in Kenya. Dengue is endemic in Kenya with outbreaks being detected in various towns in the north and the coast. This study reports on the Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquito species occurrence, diversity, and blood feeding patterns, as means of measuring the risk of transmission of YF and DEN in Kacheliba sub-county, West Pokot County, which borders previous YF outbreak areas in eastern Uganda. METHODOLOGY: Adult mosquitoes were collected using CO2-baited BG Sentinel traps at three time points during the rainy season. Mosquitoes were identified to the species level. Species abundance during the three sampling periods were compared, with emphasis on Aedes aegypti and other Stegomyia species, using generalized linear models that included mosquito diversity. Individually blood-fed mosquitoes were analyzed by DNA amplification of the 12S rRNA gene followed by sequencing to determine the source of blood meal. RESULTS: Overall, 8605 mosquitoes comprising 22 species in 5 genera were collected. Sampled Stegomyia species included Ae. aegypti (77.3%), Ae. vittatus (11.4%), Ae. metallicus (10.2%) and Ae. unilineatus (1.1%). Ae. aegypti dominated the blood-fed specimens (77%, n = 68) and were found to have fed mostly on rock hyraxes (79%), followed by goats (9%), humans and cattle (each 4%), with a minor proportion on hippopotamus and rock monitor lizards (each comprising 1%). CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal the presence of important Stegomyia species, which are known potential vectors of YF and DEN viruses. In addition, evidence of more host feeding on wild and domestic animals (hyrax and goat) than humans was observed. How the low feeding on humans translates to risk of transmission of these viruses, remains unclear, but calls for further research including vector competence studies of the mosquito populations for these viruses. This forms part of a comprehensive risk assessment package to guide decisions on implementation of affordable and sustainable vaccination (YF) and vector control plans in West Pokot County, Kenya. SN - 1873-6254 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30006028/The_occurrence_diversity_and_blood_feeding_patterns_of_potential_vectors_of_dengue_and_yellow_fever_in_Kacheliba_West_Pokot_County_Kenya_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0001-706X(18)30131-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -