Reduced-Intensity Conditioning and Dual T Lymphocyte Suppression with Antithymocyte Globulin and Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide as Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis in Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants for Hematological Malignancies.Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2018 11; 24(11):2259-2264.BB
Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haploHSCT) with conditioning regimens using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts is limited by comparably higher rates of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) may mitigate this risk. We evaluated haploHSCT after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) with ATG, PTCy, and cyclosporine to prevent rejection and GVHD. Fifty adults underwent haploHSCT from August 2016 to February 2018. RIC included fludarabine (30 mg/m2/day on days -5 to -2), busulfan (3.2 mg/m2/day on days -3 and -2), and total body irradiation (200 cGy) on day -1. Unmanipulated PBSCs were infused on day 0. GVHD prophylaxis included ATG (4.5 mg/kg over days -3 to -1), PTCy (50 mg/kg/day on days +3 and +4), and cyclosporine from day +5. Median age was 56 years (range, 22 to 70 years); 25 (73.5%) patients were in first complete remission (CR1), 5 (14.7%) were in second complete remission (CR2), and 8 (23.5%) had active disease. Median time to neutrophil engraftment was 16 days (range, 8 to 43 days). At day +100, the cumulative incidence of acute GVHD of any grade, and grades III to IV was 38.3% and 5.2%, respectively. Mild chronic GVHD was seen in 15.5%. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation occurred in 37 (74%) cases and CMV disease occurred in 4 (11.5%) cases. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation occurred in 21 (61.8%) patients. The incidence of histologically confirmed post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) was 5.8%. Four patients received rituximab. There were no CMV, EBV, or PTLD-related deaths. Six-month and 1-year overall survival (OS), cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) were 73.9%, 10.2%, and 19.4%, respectively, and 48.1%, 16% and 38.2%, respectively. Infection was the most common cause of death (18%). Unmanipulated haploidentical PBSC transplantation following RIC with ATG, PTCy, and cyclosporine as a GVHD prevention strategy results in low rates of acute and chronic GVHD.