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Diagnosis of acute canine leptospirosis using multiple laboratory tests and characterization of the isolated strains.
BMC Vet Res 2018; 14(1):222BV

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Dogs presenting with acute leptospirosis may present non-specific clinical and laboratory findings, and the definitive diagnosis may require additional confirmatory tests, including bacterial culture, for the direct or indirect identification of the pathogen. The present study describes the diagnosis of leptospirosis in suspected dogs based on the use of multiple diagnostic tests, including serological, molecular and bacteriological tests, along with the characterization of the recovered leptospiral strains.

RESULTS

Urine, serum and blood samples were collected from 33 dogs with suspected clinical leptospirosis treated at the University of São Paulo Veterinary Hospital Service (Hovet FMVZ-USP) between 2013 and 2016. Only dogs with high blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in association with multiple clinical manifestations of the disease were included. Leptospiral culture, PCR and serology (Microscopic agglutination test - MAT) were performed in blood and urine samples taken from all suspected dogs at clinical presentation, and an additional prospective MAT titration was performed in seven dogs. Infection could be identified exclusively by PCR in 10 dogs (30.3%), exclusively by MAT in four dogs (12.1%) and by both tests in four dogs, totaling 18 dogs (54.5-95%CI: 37.6-71.5). Six out of eight MAT-confirmed cases presented with the highest titers against the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup. Leptospires were recovered from urine samples from two PCR-positive dogs, and both strains could be characterized by Multilocus Sequence Analysis and serogrouping as L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. Both isolates were shown to be pathogenic in the hamster model.

CONCLUSIONS

The simultaneous use of MAT and PCR was able to increase the diagnosis of leptospirosis in clinically suspected cases. Despite the increasing incidence of new serovars affecting dogs being reported in different locations, our results suggest that leptospiral strains belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup are still a major causative agent of canine leptospirosis in São Paulo, Brazil.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departamento de Clínica Médica (Department of Veterinary Clinics), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science), Universidade de São Paulo (University of São Paulo), São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil.Departamento de Clínica Médica (Department of Veterinary Clinics), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science), Universidade de São Paulo (University of São Paulo), São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil.Departamento de Clínica Médica (Department of Veterinary Clinics), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science), Universidade de São Paulo (University of São Paulo), São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil.Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal (Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and Animal Health), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science), Universidade de São Paulo (University of São Paulo), São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil.Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal (Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and Animal Health), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science), Universidade de São Paulo (University of São Paulo), São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil.Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal (Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and Animal Health), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science), Universidade de São Paulo (University of São Paulo), São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil. marcosbryan@usp.br.Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal (Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and Animal Health), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science), Universidade de São Paulo (University of São Paulo), São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil.Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia (Department of Microbiology and Parasitology), Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, 24210-130, Brazil.Departamento de Clínica Médica (Department of Veterinary Clinics), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science), Universidade de São Paulo (University of São Paulo), São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30016949

Citation

Miotto, Bruno Alonso, et al. "Diagnosis of Acute Canine Leptospirosis Using Multiple Laboratory Tests and Characterization of the Isolated Strains." BMC Veterinary Research, vol. 14, no. 1, 2018, p. 222.
Miotto BA, Tozzi BF, Penteado MS, et al. Diagnosis of acute canine leptospirosis using multiple laboratory tests and characterization of the isolated strains. BMC Vet Res. 2018;14(1):222.
Miotto, B. A., Tozzi, B. F., Penteado, M. S., Guilloux, A. G. A., Moreno, L. Z., Heinemann, M. B., ... Hagiwara, M. K. (2018). Diagnosis of acute canine leptospirosis using multiple laboratory tests and characterization of the isolated strains. BMC Veterinary Research, 14(1), p. 222. doi:10.1186/s12917-018-1547-4.
Miotto BA, et al. Diagnosis of Acute Canine Leptospirosis Using Multiple Laboratory Tests and Characterization of the Isolated Strains. BMC Vet Res. 2018 Jul 17;14(1):222. PubMed PMID: 30016949.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Diagnosis of acute canine leptospirosis using multiple laboratory tests and characterization of the isolated strains. AU - Miotto,Bruno Alonso, AU - Tozzi,Barbara Furlan, AU - Penteado,Manoela de Souza, AU - Guilloux,Aline Gil Alves, AU - Moreno,Luisa Zanolli, AU - Heinemann,Marcos Bryan, AU - Moreno,Andrea Micke, AU - Lilenbaum,Walter, AU - Hagiwara,Mitika Kuribayashi, Y1 - 2018/07/17/ PY - 2018/01/01/received PY - 2018/07/09/accepted PY - 2018/7/19/entrez PY - 2018/7/19/pubmed PY - 2018/10/16/medline KW - Acute infection KW - Canine KW - Culture KW - Dogs KW - Icterohaemorrhagiae KW - Leptospirosis KW - MAT KW - MLST KW - PCR KW - Sequencing SP - 222 EP - 222 JF - BMC veterinary research JO - BMC Vet. Res. VL - 14 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Dogs presenting with acute leptospirosis may present non-specific clinical and laboratory findings, and the definitive diagnosis may require additional confirmatory tests, including bacterial culture, for the direct or indirect identification of the pathogen. The present study describes the diagnosis of leptospirosis in suspected dogs based on the use of multiple diagnostic tests, including serological, molecular and bacteriological tests, along with the characterization of the recovered leptospiral strains. RESULTS: Urine, serum and blood samples were collected from 33 dogs with suspected clinical leptospirosis treated at the University of São Paulo Veterinary Hospital Service (Hovet FMVZ-USP) between 2013 and 2016. Only dogs with high blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in association with multiple clinical manifestations of the disease were included. Leptospiral culture, PCR and serology (Microscopic agglutination test - MAT) were performed in blood and urine samples taken from all suspected dogs at clinical presentation, and an additional prospective MAT titration was performed in seven dogs. Infection could be identified exclusively by PCR in 10 dogs (30.3%), exclusively by MAT in four dogs (12.1%) and by both tests in four dogs, totaling 18 dogs (54.5-95%CI: 37.6-71.5). Six out of eight MAT-confirmed cases presented with the highest titers against the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup. Leptospires were recovered from urine samples from two PCR-positive dogs, and both strains could be characterized by Multilocus Sequence Analysis and serogrouping as L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. Both isolates were shown to be pathogenic in the hamster model. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous use of MAT and PCR was able to increase the diagnosis of leptospirosis in clinically suspected cases. Despite the increasing incidence of new serovars affecting dogs being reported in different locations, our results suggest that leptospiral strains belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup are still a major causative agent of canine leptospirosis in São Paulo, Brazil. SN - 1746-6148 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30016949/Diagnosis_of_acute_canine_leptospirosis_using_multiple_laboratory_tests_and_characterization_of_the_isolated_strains_ L2 - https://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12917-018-1547-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -