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Valence and Intensity of Video Stimuli of Dogs and Conspecifics in Sheep: Approach-Avoidance, Operant Response, and Attention.
Animals (Basel). 2018 Jul 17; 8(7)A

Abstract

Stimuli are often presumed to be either negative or positive. However, animals' judgement of their negativity or positivity cannot generally be assumed. A possibility to assess emotional states in animals elicited by stimuli is to investigate animal preferences and their motivation to gain access to these stimuli. This study's aim was to assess the valence of social stimuli in sheep. We used silent videos of varying intensity of dogs as negative versus conspecifics as positive stimuli in three approaches: (1) an approach⁻avoidance paradigm; (2) operant conditioning using the video stimuli as reinforcers; and (3) an attention test. In the latter, we assessed differential attention of sheep to simultaneous projections by automatically tracking sheep head and ear postures and recording brain activity. With these approaches, it was difficult to support that the sheep's reactions varied according to the stimuli's presumed valence and intensity. The approach⁻avoidance paradigm and attention test did not support the assumption that dog videos were more negative than sheep videos, though sheep reacted to the stimuli presented. Results from the operant conditioning indicated that sheep were more prone to avoid videos of moving dogs. Overall, we found that standard video images may not be ideal to represent valence characteristics of stimuli to sheep.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Proper Housing of Ruminants and Pigs, Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO, Agroscope, Tänikon 1, 8356 Ettenhausen, Switzerland. camille.raoult@agroscope.admin.ch. Animal Welfare Division, Veterinary Public Health Institute, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Länggassstrasse 120, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland. camille.raoult@agroscope.admin.ch.Animal Husbandry, Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institute of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10115 Berlin, Germany. lorenz.gygax@hu-berlin.de.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30018237

Citation

Raoult, Camille M C., and Lorenz Gygax. "Valence and Intensity of Video Stimuli of Dogs and Conspecifics in Sheep: Approach-Avoidance, Operant Response, and Attention." Animals : an Open Access Journal From MDPI, vol. 8, no. 7, 2018.
Raoult CMC, Gygax L. Valence and Intensity of Video Stimuli of Dogs and Conspecifics in Sheep: Approach-Avoidance, Operant Response, and Attention. Animals (Basel). 2018;8(7).
Raoult, C. M. C., & Gygax, L. (2018). Valence and Intensity of Video Stimuli of Dogs and Conspecifics in Sheep: Approach-Avoidance, Operant Response, and Attention. Animals : an Open Access Journal From MDPI, 8(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8070121
Raoult CMC, Gygax L. Valence and Intensity of Video Stimuli of Dogs and Conspecifics in Sheep: Approach-Avoidance, Operant Response, and Attention. Animals (Basel). 2018 Jul 17;8(7) PubMed PMID: 30018237.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Valence and Intensity of Video Stimuli of Dogs and Conspecifics in Sheep: Approach-Avoidance, Operant Response, and Attention. AU - Raoult,Camille M C, AU - Gygax,Lorenz, Y1 - 2018/07/17/ PY - 2018/04/24/received PY - 2018/07/09/revised PY - 2018/07/14/accepted PY - 2018/7/19/entrez PY - 2018/7/19/pubmed PY - 2018/7/19/medline KW - approach–avoidance paradigm KW - attention KW - operant conditioning KW - sheep KW - valence KW - video stimuli JF - Animals : an open access journal from MDPI JO - Animals (Basel) VL - 8 IS - 7 N2 - Stimuli are often presumed to be either negative or positive. However, animals' judgement of their negativity or positivity cannot generally be assumed. A possibility to assess emotional states in animals elicited by stimuli is to investigate animal preferences and their motivation to gain access to these stimuli. This study's aim was to assess the valence of social stimuli in sheep. We used silent videos of varying intensity of dogs as negative versus conspecifics as positive stimuli in three approaches: (1) an approach⁻avoidance paradigm; (2) operant conditioning using the video stimuli as reinforcers; and (3) an attention test. In the latter, we assessed differential attention of sheep to simultaneous projections by automatically tracking sheep head and ear postures and recording brain activity. With these approaches, it was difficult to support that the sheep's reactions varied according to the stimuli's presumed valence and intensity. The approach⁻avoidance paradigm and attention test did not support the assumption that dog videos were more negative than sheep videos, though sheep reacted to the stimuli presented. Results from the operant conditioning indicated that sheep were more prone to avoid videos of moving dogs. Overall, we found that standard video images may not be ideal to represent valence characteristics of stimuli to sheep. SN - 2076-2615 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30018237/Valence_and_Intensity_of_Video_Stimuli_of_Dogs_and_Conspecifics_in_Sheep:_Approach_Avoidance_Operant_Response_and_Attention_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ani8070121 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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