Ecological and human health risk assessments in the context of soil heavy metal pollution in a typical industrial area of Shanghai, China.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Sep; 25(27):27090-27105.ES
The purpose of this study was to identify the concentrations, sources, and potential ecological and health risks of heavy metals in soils from a typical industrial area in Shanghai, China. A total of 28 surface soil samples were collected and analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Hg from the BAO steel industry in June and July 2016. Classic multivariate statistical and geostatistical analysis methods were used to detect the sources of heavy metals, and the ecological risk index (RI) and hazard index (HI) were calculated to assess the potential ecological and health risks. The results showed significant pollution levels, which were derived from the industrial production process and closely related to the spatial layout of the functional areas of the industry. The ecological risk assessment indicated that a very high concentration zone with values ranging from 2045 to 3417 mg kg-1 represented considerable ecological risk in the range of 300 to 600. The main dominant factor affecting the ecological risk is toxicity rather than concentration. The health risk assessment indicated that noncarcinogenic risk was mainly caused by Cr, and the average HI value for adults was 6.48, while it was 39.01 for children. Thus, children face higher threats to heavy metals in soils. The average carcinogenic risk values for Ni, Cr, Cd, and As were 7.97E-09, 5.2E-07, 2.1E-10, and 2.1E-09, respectively, all of which were below the threshold values (1.0E - 04). These results provide basic information for the control and environmental management of heavy metal pollution in steel industrial regions.