Gastrointestinal pathophysiology and nutrition in cystic fibrosis.Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Sep; 12(9):853-862.ER
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a severe, progressive, multisystemic disease that is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Optimizing nutrition is critical, as higher growth parameters are associated with better pulmonary function and outcomes, but unfortunately patients with this disease are prone to malnutrition, growth failure, and vitamin deficiencies. The purpose of this review is to provide a timely highlight of the physiologic processes and outcome data to support today's management strategies, as well as review these principles themselves. Areas covered: This review covers the background of the importance of vigilant attention to nutrition and growth in these patients, the underlying physiology leading to an abnormal gastrointestinal tract and its role in CF malnutrition, and current evaluation and management strategies to address nutrition in CF. Analysis of up-to-date relevant literature was performed using PubMed. Expert commentary: Advances in research and clinical developments over the years have improved knowledge of this disease as well as patient outcomes. Of particular importance is optimizing nutrition especially in the early stages of life, as well as accounting for the markedly abnormal CF intestinal milieu when addressing the gastrointestinal and nutritional needs of these patients.