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Interactive effects of parenting behavior and regulatory skills in toddlerhood on child weight outcomes.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2019 01; 43(1):53-61.IJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

There is limited research investigating whether maternal behaviors exhibited during non-feeding contexts play a role in the development of obesity, and whether this association varies based on children's emerging regulatory skills. The objective of this study was to investigate interactions between maternal behaviors and toddler regulation predicting child BMI z-scores (BMIZ) at 4.5 years.

SUBJECTS/METHODS

Infant-mother dyads (n = 108) participated in laboratory visits when the child was 18 months and 4.5 years of age. Maternal interactive behaviors (i.e., positive responsiveness, gentle control) were coded from recordings of free play and clean-up tasks with their toddlers. Toddler regulation was assessed via an observational task, experimenter ratings, and parent ratings. Child and mother length/height and weight measurements were recorded and used to calculate child BMIZ and maternal BMI, respectively.

RESULTS

After controlling for covariates, two significant interactions emerged between maternal behaviors and toddler regulation predicting BMIZ at 4.5 years. First, an interaction of positive responsiveness during free play and toddler regulation demonstrated that greater positive responsiveness significantly related to lower child BMIZ for toddlers with poor regulation. Second, an interaction of gentle control during clean-up and toddler regulation indicated that greater gentle control was associated with lower BMIZ for toddlers with lesser regulatory abilities, but higher BMIZ for well-regulated toddlers. No significant main effects emerged for maternal interactive behaviors or toddler regulation.

CONCLUSIONS

These results suggest that associations between maternal behaviors and child BMIZ may depend on toddlers' emerging regulatory abilities. Maternal responsiveness during free play and gentle control during clean-up appear to protect against weight gain, especially for toddlers with lower regulatory abilities. However, greater levels of gentle control may have adverse effects on BMIZ for well-regulated toddlers. These results suggest that both parenting and toddler regulation, examined outside feeding contexts, may have important implications for child obesity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 12631 E. 17th Ave, Mail Stop F561, Room 2600, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA. kameron.moding@ucdenver.edu.University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30026591

Citation

Moding, Kameron J., et al. "Interactive Effects of Parenting Behavior and Regulatory Skills in Toddlerhood On Child Weight Outcomes." International Journal of Obesity (2005), vol. 43, no. 1, 2019, pp. 53-61.
Moding KJ, Augustine ME, Stifter CA. Interactive effects of parenting behavior and regulatory skills in toddlerhood on child weight outcomes. Int J Obes (Lond). 2019;43(1):53-61.
Moding, K. J., Augustine, M. E., & Stifter, C. A. (2019). Interactive effects of parenting behavior and regulatory skills in toddlerhood on child weight outcomes. International Journal of Obesity (2005), 43(1), 53-61. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0162-6
Moding KJ, Augustine ME, Stifter CA. Interactive Effects of Parenting Behavior and Regulatory Skills in Toddlerhood On Child Weight Outcomes. Int J Obes (Lond). 2019;43(1):53-61. PubMed PMID: 30026591.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Interactive effects of parenting behavior and regulatory skills in toddlerhood on child weight outcomes. AU - Moding,Kameron J, AU - Augustine,Mairin E, AU - Stifter,Cynthia A, Y1 - 2018/07/19/ PY - 2017/12/20/received PY - 2018/06/15/accepted PY - 2018/05/29/revised PY - 2018/7/22/pubmed PY - 2020/2/6/medline PY - 2018/7/21/entrez SP - 53 EP - 61 JF - International journal of obesity (2005) JO - Int J Obes (Lond) VL - 43 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVES: There is limited research investigating whether maternal behaviors exhibited during non-feeding contexts play a role in the development of obesity, and whether this association varies based on children's emerging regulatory skills. The objective of this study was to investigate interactions between maternal behaviors and toddler regulation predicting child BMI z-scores (BMIZ) at 4.5 years. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Infant-mother dyads (n = 108) participated in laboratory visits when the child was 18 months and 4.5 years of age. Maternal interactive behaviors (i.e., positive responsiveness, gentle control) were coded from recordings of free play and clean-up tasks with their toddlers. Toddler regulation was assessed via an observational task, experimenter ratings, and parent ratings. Child and mother length/height and weight measurements were recorded and used to calculate child BMIZ and maternal BMI, respectively. RESULTS: After controlling for covariates, two significant interactions emerged between maternal behaviors and toddler regulation predicting BMIZ at 4.5 years. First, an interaction of positive responsiveness during free play and toddler regulation demonstrated that greater positive responsiveness significantly related to lower child BMIZ for toddlers with poor regulation. Second, an interaction of gentle control during clean-up and toddler regulation indicated that greater gentle control was associated with lower BMIZ for toddlers with lesser regulatory abilities, but higher BMIZ for well-regulated toddlers. No significant main effects emerged for maternal interactive behaviors or toddler regulation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that associations between maternal behaviors and child BMIZ may depend on toddlers' emerging regulatory abilities. Maternal responsiveness during free play and gentle control during clean-up appear to protect against weight gain, especially for toddlers with lower regulatory abilities. However, greater levels of gentle control may have adverse effects on BMIZ for well-regulated toddlers. These results suggest that both parenting and toddler regulation, examined outside feeding contexts, may have important implications for child obesity. SN - 1476-5497 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30026591/Interactive_effects_of_parenting_behavior_and_regulatory_skills_in_toddlerhood_on_child_weight_outcomes_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0162-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -