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Supplement Use and Dietary Sources of Folate, Vitamin D, and n-3 Fatty Acids during Preconception: The GLIMP2 Study.
Nutrients 2018; 10(8)N

Abstract

An adequate nutritional status during the preconception period is important, particularly for folate, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids (i.e., EPA+DHA). We aimed to determine supplement intake and the main dietary sources of folate, vitamin D, and EPA+DHA using the data of 66 Dutch women aged 18⁻40 years who wished to become pregnant. Additionally, associations of these intakes with their blood levels were examined. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, and supplement use with a structured questionnaire. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined in serum and folate and phospholipid EPA+DHA levels in plasma. Partial Spearman's correlations, restricted cubic splines and trend analyses over tertiles of nutrient intakes were performed to examine intake-status associations. A large proportion of women did not meet the Dutch recommended intakes of folate (50%), vitamin D (67%), and EPA+DHA (52%). Vegetables were the main contributor to dietary folate intake (25%), oils and fats to dietary vitamin D intake (39%), and fish to dietary EPA+DHA intake (69%). Fourteen percent of the women had an inadequate folate status and 23% an inadequate vitamin D status. Supplemental folate intake, supplemental and dietary vitamin D intake and dietary EPA+DHA intake were significantly associated with their blood levels. In conclusion, even in our highly educated population, a large proportion did not achieve recommended folate, vitamin D and n-3 fatty acid intakes. Promotion of folate and vitamin D supplement use and fish consumption is needed to improve intakes and blood levels of these nutrients in women who wish to become pregnant.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 Wageningen, The Netherlands. moniek.looman@wur.nl.Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 Wageningen, The Netherlands. claudia.vandenberg@wur.nl.Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 Wageningen, The Netherlands. anouk.geelen@wur.nl.Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Hospital Gelderse Vallei Ede, P.O. Box 9025, 6710 HN Ede, The Netherlands. SamlalR@zgv.nl.Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Gelderse Vallei Ede, P.O. Box 9025, 6710 HN Ede, The Netherlands. HeijligenbergR@zgv.nl.Clinical Chemistry and Haematology Laboratory, Hospital Gelderse Vallei Ede, P.O. Box 9025, 6710 HN Ede, The Netherlands. KleinGunnewiekJ@zgv.nl.Clinical Chemistry and Haematology Laboratory, Hospital Gelderse Vallei Ede, P.O. Box 9025, 6710 HN Ede, The Netherlands. BalversM@zgv.nl.Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Hospital Gelderse Vallei Ede, P.O. Box 9025, 6710 HN Ede, The Netherlands. LeendertzC@zgv.nl.Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Rijnstate Hospital, P.O. Box 9555, 6800 Arnhem, The Netherlands. LWijnberger@rijnstate.nl.Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 Wageningen, The Netherlands. edith.feskens@wur.nl.Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 Wageningen, The Netherlands. elske.brouwer-brolsma@wur.nl.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30046020

Citation

Looman, Moniek, et al. "Supplement Use and Dietary Sources of Folate, Vitamin D, and N-3 Fatty Acids During Preconception: the GLIMP2 Study." Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 8, 2018.
Looman M, van den Berg C, Geelen A, et al. Supplement Use and Dietary Sources of Folate, Vitamin D, and n-3 Fatty Acids during Preconception: The GLIMP2 Study. Nutrients. 2018;10(8).
Looman, M., van den Berg, C., Geelen, A., Samlal, R. A. K., Heijligenberg, R., Klein Gunnewiek, J. M. T., ... Brouwer-Brolsma, E. M. (2018). Supplement Use and Dietary Sources of Folate, Vitamin D, and n-3 Fatty Acids during Preconception: The GLIMP2 Study. Nutrients, 10(8), doi:10.3390/nu10080962.
Looman M, et al. Supplement Use and Dietary Sources of Folate, Vitamin D, and N-3 Fatty Acids During Preconception: the GLIMP2 Study. Nutrients. 2018 Jul 25;10(8) PubMed PMID: 30046020.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Supplement Use and Dietary Sources of Folate, Vitamin D, and n-3 Fatty Acids during Preconception: The GLIMP2 Study. AU - Looman,Moniek, AU - van den Berg,Claudia, AU - Geelen,Anouk, AU - Samlal,Rahul A K, AU - Heijligenberg,Rik, AU - Klein Gunnewiek,Jacqueline M T, AU - Balvers,Michiel G J, AU - Leendertz-Eggen,Caroline L, AU - Wijnberger,Lia D E, AU - Feskens,Edith J M, AU - Brouwer-Brolsma,Elske M, Y1 - 2018/07/25/ PY - 2018/06/13/received PY - 2018/07/19/revised PY - 2018/07/23/accepted PY - 2018/7/27/entrez PY - 2018/7/27/pubmed PY - 2018/11/14/medline KW - diet KW - folate KW - n-3 fatty acids KW - preconception KW - supplements KW - vitamin D JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 10 IS - 8 N2 - An adequate nutritional status during the preconception period is important, particularly for folate, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids (i.e., EPA+DHA). We aimed to determine supplement intake and the main dietary sources of folate, vitamin D, and EPA+DHA using the data of 66 Dutch women aged 18⁻40 years who wished to become pregnant. Additionally, associations of these intakes with their blood levels were examined. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, and supplement use with a structured questionnaire. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined in serum and folate and phospholipid EPA+DHA levels in plasma. Partial Spearman's correlations, restricted cubic splines and trend analyses over tertiles of nutrient intakes were performed to examine intake-status associations. A large proportion of women did not meet the Dutch recommended intakes of folate (50%), vitamin D (67%), and EPA+DHA (52%). Vegetables were the main contributor to dietary folate intake (25%), oils and fats to dietary vitamin D intake (39%), and fish to dietary EPA+DHA intake (69%). Fourteen percent of the women had an inadequate folate status and 23% an inadequate vitamin D status. Supplemental folate intake, supplemental and dietary vitamin D intake and dietary EPA+DHA intake were significantly associated with their blood levels. In conclusion, even in our highly educated population, a large proportion did not achieve recommended folate, vitamin D and n-3 fatty acid intakes. Promotion of folate and vitamin D supplement use and fish consumption is needed to improve intakes and blood levels of these nutrients in women who wish to become pregnant. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30046020/Supplement_Use_and_Dietary_Sources_of_Folate_Vitamin_D_and_n_3_Fatty_Acids_during_Preconception:_The_GLIMP2_Study_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu10080962 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -