Is it Important to Prevent and Treat Protein-Energy Wasting in Chronic Kidney Disease and Chronic Dialysis Patients?J Ren Nutr. 2018 11; 28(6):369-379.JR
Protein-energy wasting (PEW), which essentially refers to decreased body protein mass and fuel (energy) reserves, is common in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and end-stage kidney disease patients undergoing chronic dialysis. The term PEW is used rather than protein-energy malnutrition because many causes of PEW in CKD and end-stage kidney disease patients does not involve reduced nutrient intake (e.g., catabolic illness, oxidants, biologicals lost in urine and dialysate, acidemia). The prevalence of PEW in CKD increases as glomerular filtration rate declines and is highest in chronic dialysis patients. PEW in CKD is important because it is associated with substantially increased morbidity and mortality and reduced quality of life. Many signs of PEW can be improved with nutritional therapy. It is not known whether amelioration or eradication of PEW by treatment of underlying illnesses, nutritional therapy, and/or other measures will reduce morbidity and mortality or improve quality of life. Clinical trials are indicated to answer these questions.