Breakfast in Canada: Prevalence of Consumption, Contribution to Nutrient and Food Group Intakes, and Variability across Tertiles of Daily Diet Quality. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative.Nutrients 2018; 10(8)N
This study used 24-h recall data from the nationally representative 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition to assess breakfast intake among Canadians aged 6⁻12 years (n = 2331), 13⁻17 years (n = 2026), 18⁻54 years (n = 7651), and 55+ years (n = 6279). Overall, 90% consumed breakfast; breakfast consumers reported higher intakes of energy and key nutrients and had higher daily diet quality scores assessed using the Nutrient-Rich Foods Index 9.3 (NRF 9.3). Among breakfast consumers (n = 16,484), breakfast contributed a mean of 389 kcal (1628 kJ) and 21.6% of daily energy intake. Relative to its contribution to energy, breakfast contributed higher intakes of fruit, whole grains, and fluid milk, as well as associated nutrients (e.g., carbohydrate, total sugars, fiber, calcium, and vitamin D). Among breakfast consumers classified by daily dietary quality (NRF 9.3 score), energy intake at breakfast did not differ across tertiles for either children or adults. However, intakes of key nutrients, fiber, and total sugars increased across tertiles, and among adults, intakes of saturated fat and sodium decreased. Mean intakes of fruit, whole grains, and fluid milk also increased across tertiles, as did the proportion of individuals consuming these foods; higher fruit and milk intakes may explain higher sugar intakes as diet quality increased. Promoting the consumption of these foods at breakfast could contribute to improved diet quality among Canadians.