Breakfast Consumption in the UK: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative Group.Nutrients. 2018 Jul 30; 10(8)N
Breakfast consumption is associated with higher overall dietary adequacy; however, there is a lack of quantitative guidelines for optimal nutrient intakes at breakfast in the UK. This study aimed to investigate nutrient and food group intakes at breakfast and examine their relationship to overall Diet Quality (DQ). Data from the most recent National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS, 2008⁻2014) were accessed to provide a representative sample (n = 8174) of the UK population, aged 5⁻96 years, mean age of 33 years. Food intake was measured by a 4-day estimated food diary and DQ was assessed by the Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 method. Energy- and socio-economic-adjusted nutrient and food group intakes were compared across age groups and DQ tertiles by ANCOVA. Breakfast contributed 20⁻22% to total energy intake. Breakfast intakes of carbohydrate and non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) were higher, and intakes of protein, total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) were lower, than relative daily intakes. Breakfast was particularly rich in B vitamins, vitamin D, calcium, iron, iodine and magnesium. From the lowest to the highest DQ tertile decreasing intakes of NMES, SFA and total fat and increasing intakes of carbohydrate, protein, fibre and most micronutrients were found. These findings could help to inform the development of nutrient-based recommendations for a balanced breakfast for the first time in the UK.