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Breakfast Consumption in the UK: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative Group.
Nutrients. 2018 Jul 30; 10(8)N

Abstract

Breakfast consumption is associated with higher overall dietary adequacy; however, there is a lack of quantitative guidelines for optimal nutrient intakes at breakfast in the UK. This study aimed to investigate nutrient and food group intakes at breakfast and examine their relationship to overall Diet Quality (DQ). Data from the most recent National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS, 2008⁻2014) were accessed to provide a representative sample (n = 8174) of the UK population, aged 5⁻96 years, mean age of 33 years. Food intake was measured by a 4-day estimated food diary and DQ was assessed by the Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 method. Energy- and socio-economic-adjusted nutrient and food group intakes were compared across age groups and DQ tertiles by ANCOVA. Breakfast contributed 20⁻22% to total energy intake. Breakfast intakes of carbohydrate and non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) were higher, and intakes of protein, total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) were lower, than relative daily intakes. Breakfast was particularly rich in B vitamins, vitamin D, calcium, iron, iodine and magnesium. From the lowest to the highest DQ tertile decreasing intakes of NMES, SFA and total fat and increasing intakes of carbohydrate, protein, fibre and most micronutrients were found. These findings could help to inform the development of nutrient-based recommendations for a balanced breakfast for the first time in the UK.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK. s.gaal@ulster.ac.uk.Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK. ma.kerr@ulster.ac.uk.Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK. mw.ward@ulster.ac.uk.Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK. h.mcnulty@ulster.ac.uk.Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK. mbe.livingstone@ulster.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30061542

Citation

Gaal, Szilvia, et al. "Breakfast Consumption in the UK: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality. a Study From the International Breakfast Research Initiative Group." Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 8, 2018.
Gaal S, Kerr MA, Ward M, et al. Breakfast Consumption in the UK: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative Group. Nutrients. 2018;10(8).
Gaal, S., Kerr, M. A., Ward, M., McNulty, H., & Livingstone, M. B. E. (2018). Breakfast Consumption in the UK: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative Group. Nutrients, 10(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080999
Gaal S, et al. Breakfast Consumption in the UK: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality. a Study From the International Breakfast Research Initiative Group. Nutrients. 2018 Jul 30;10(8) PubMed PMID: 30061542.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Breakfast Consumption in the UK: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative Group. AU - Gaal,Szilvia, AU - Kerr,Maeve A, AU - Ward,Mary, AU - McNulty,Helene, AU - Livingstone,M Barbara E, Y1 - 2018/07/30/ PY - 2018/07/09/received PY - 2018/07/26/revised PY - 2018/07/28/accepted PY - 2018/8/1/entrez PY - 2018/8/1/pubmed PY - 2018/11/14/medline KW - NDNS KW - Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 KW - breakfast consumption KW - diet quality KW - food groups KW - nutrient intake JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 10 IS - 8 N2 - Breakfast consumption is associated with higher overall dietary adequacy; however, there is a lack of quantitative guidelines for optimal nutrient intakes at breakfast in the UK. This study aimed to investigate nutrient and food group intakes at breakfast and examine their relationship to overall Diet Quality (DQ). Data from the most recent National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS, 2008⁻2014) were accessed to provide a representative sample (n = 8174) of the UK population, aged 5⁻96 years, mean age of 33 years. Food intake was measured by a 4-day estimated food diary and DQ was assessed by the Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 method. Energy- and socio-economic-adjusted nutrient and food group intakes were compared across age groups and DQ tertiles by ANCOVA. Breakfast contributed 20⁻22% to total energy intake. Breakfast intakes of carbohydrate and non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) were higher, and intakes of protein, total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) were lower, than relative daily intakes. Breakfast was particularly rich in B vitamins, vitamin D, calcium, iron, iodine and magnesium. From the lowest to the highest DQ tertile decreasing intakes of NMES, SFA and total fat and increasing intakes of carbohydrate, protein, fibre and most micronutrients were found. These findings could help to inform the development of nutrient-based recommendations for a balanced breakfast for the first time in the UK. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30061542/Breakfast_Consumption_in_the_UK:_Patterns_Nutrient_Intake_and_Diet_Quality__A_Study_from_the_International_Breakfast_Research_Initiative_Group_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu10080999 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -