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The Resulting Variation in Nutrient Intake With the Inclusion of Walnuts in the Diets of Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Trial.
Am J Health Promot. 2019 03; 33(3):430-438.AJ

Abstract

PURPOSE

We previously demonstrated that including walnuts in the diets of adults at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) led to improved overall diet quality. This report examines the specific changes in their nutrient intake.

DESIGN

This was a randomized, controlled, modified Latin square parallel design trial with 2 treatment arms. Participants were randomized to walnut intake with, or without, dietary advice to regulate caloric intake. Within each treatment arm, they were further randomized to one of 2 sequence permutations (walnut-included/walnut-excluded or walnut-excluded/walnut-included diet), with a 3-month washout between treatment phases.

SETTING

Community hospital in Lower Naugatuck Valley in Connecticut.

PARTICIPANTS

Cohort of 112 participants (31 men and 81 women) at risk for T2DM.

INTERVENTION

Participants included 56 g (366 kcal) of walnuts in their daily diets for 6 months.

MEASURES

Nutrient intake was assessed using web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment.

ANALYSIS

Data were analyzed using generalized linear models.

RESULTS

Walnut inclusion led to increased intake of total fat, calcium, magnesium, thiamin, total saturated fatty acids, and monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (379.0 ± 90.3 g vs -136.5 ± 92.7 g, P < .01; 230.7 ± 114.2 mg vs -95.2 ± 117.4 mg, P = .05; 111.0 ± 33.9 mg vs -32.3 ± 34.9 mg, P < .01; 0.28 ± 0.2 mg vs -0.47 ± 0.2 mg, P = .02; 8.6 ± 3.4 g vs -1.1 ± 3.5 g, P =.05; 6.3 ± 3.9 g vs -6.3 ± 4.0 g, P = .03; and 25.4 ± 4.0 vs -6.6 ± 4.2 g, P < .01, respectively). Vitamin C intake decreased (-65.3 ± 55.3 mg vs 98.9 ± 56.8 mg, P = .04). Protein intake increased from baseline with the inclusion of walnuts (20.0 ± 8.8 g, P < .05). Walnut inclusion led to an increase in total calories consumed when caloric intake is not regulated.

CONCLUSION

Including walnuts in the diets of these adults led to increased dietary intake of some nutrients associated with lower risk of developing T2DM and other cardiometabolic risk factors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 Griffin Hospital-Derby, Yale University Prevention Research Center, Derby, CT, USA.1 Griffin Hospital-Derby, Yale University Prevention Research Center, Derby, CT, USA.1 Griffin Hospital-Derby, Yale University Prevention Research Center, Derby, CT, USA.1 Griffin Hospital-Derby, Yale University Prevention Research Center, Derby, CT, USA.1 Griffin Hospital-Derby, Yale University Prevention Research Center, Derby, CT, USA.1 Griffin Hospital-Derby, Yale University Prevention Research Center, Derby, CT, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30068215

Citation

Njike, Valentine Y., et al. "The Resulting Variation in Nutrient Intake With the Inclusion of Walnuts in the Diets of Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: a Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Trial." American Journal of Health Promotion : AJHP, vol. 33, no. 3, 2019, pp. 430-438.
Njike VY, Costales VC, Petraro P, et al. The Resulting Variation in Nutrient Intake With the Inclusion of Walnuts in the Diets of Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Trial. Am J Health Promot. 2019;33(3):430-438.
Njike, V. Y., Costales, V. C., Petraro, P., Annam, R., Yarandi, N., & Katz, D. L. (2019). The Resulting Variation in Nutrient Intake With the Inclusion of Walnuts in the Diets of Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Trial. American Journal of Health Promotion : AJHP, 33(3), 430-438. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890117118791120
Njike VY, et al. The Resulting Variation in Nutrient Intake With the Inclusion of Walnuts in the Diets of Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: a Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Trial. Am J Health Promot. 2019;33(3):430-438. PubMed PMID: 30068215.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Resulting Variation in Nutrient Intake With the Inclusion of Walnuts in the Diets of Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Trial. AU - Njike,Valentine Y, AU - Costales,Victoria C, AU - Petraro,Paul, AU - Annam,Rachel, AU - Yarandi,Niloufarsadat, AU - Katz,David L, Y1 - 2018/08/01/ PY - 2018/8/3/pubmed PY - 2020/3/10/medline PY - 2018/8/3/entrez KW - cardiometabolic KW - interventions KW - nutrients displaced KW - nutrition KW - nuts KW - prevention KW - type 2 diabetes KW - walnuts SP - 430 EP - 438 JF - American journal of health promotion : AJHP JO - Am J Health Promot VL - 33 IS - 3 N2 - PURPOSE: We previously demonstrated that including walnuts in the diets of adults at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) led to improved overall diet quality. This report examines the specific changes in their nutrient intake. DESIGN: This was a randomized, controlled, modified Latin square parallel design trial with 2 treatment arms. Participants were randomized to walnut intake with, or without, dietary advice to regulate caloric intake. Within each treatment arm, they were further randomized to one of 2 sequence permutations (walnut-included/walnut-excluded or walnut-excluded/walnut-included diet), with a 3-month washout between treatment phases. SETTING: Community hospital in Lower Naugatuck Valley in Connecticut. PARTICIPANTS: Cohort of 112 participants (31 men and 81 women) at risk for T2DM. INTERVENTION: Participants included 56 g (366 kcal) of walnuts in their daily diets for 6 months. MEASURES: Nutrient intake was assessed using web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment. ANALYSIS: Data were analyzed using generalized linear models. RESULTS: Walnut inclusion led to increased intake of total fat, calcium, magnesium, thiamin, total saturated fatty acids, and monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (379.0 ± 90.3 g vs -136.5 ± 92.7 g, P < .01; 230.7 ± 114.2 mg vs -95.2 ± 117.4 mg, P = .05; 111.0 ± 33.9 mg vs -32.3 ± 34.9 mg, P < .01; 0.28 ± 0.2 mg vs -0.47 ± 0.2 mg, P = .02; 8.6 ± 3.4 g vs -1.1 ± 3.5 g, P =.05; 6.3 ± 3.9 g vs -6.3 ± 4.0 g, P = .03; and 25.4 ± 4.0 vs -6.6 ± 4.2 g, P < .01, respectively). Vitamin C intake decreased (-65.3 ± 55.3 mg vs 98.9 ± 56.8 mg, P = .04). Protein intake increased from baseline with the inclusion of walnuts (20.0 ± 8.8 g, P < .05). Walnut inclusion led to an increase in total calories consumed when caloric intake is not regulated. CONCLUSION: Including walnuts in the diets of these adults led to increased dietary intake of some nutrients associated with lower risk of developing T2DM and other cardiometabolic risk factors. SN - 2168-6602 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30068215/The_Resulting_Variation_in_Nutrient_Intake_With_the_Inclusion_of_Walnuts_in_the_Diets_of_Adults_at_Risk_for_Type_2_Diabetes:_A_Randomized_Controlled_Crossover_Trial_ L2 - http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0890117118791120?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -