Effects of processed red meat consumption on the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases among Korean adults: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study.Eur J Nutr. 2019 Sep; 58(6):2477-2484.EJ
Few studies have evaluated the effects of processed red meat (PRM) consumption on chronic disease risk, especially among low average PRM consumption populations. This study examined association between PRM intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidences in Korea.
Participants (n = 10,030; aged 40-69 years) were recruited from the Ansan-Ansung cohort study, a subset of Korean Genome Epidemiology Study. Validated 103-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary information, at baseline (2001-2002) and at second follow-up (2005-2006). T2DM and CVD incidences were identified using biennial questionnaire-based interview during a 10-year follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Over the 10-year follow-up period, 668 and 493 incident cases of T2DM (62,130 person-years) and CVD (63,150 person-years), respectively, were documented. In crude models, comparing the highest and lowest levels of PRM intake, no significant association occurred with incident T2DM [HR, 95% CI (0.94, 0.76-1.17)], while significant association occurred with incident CVD (0.67, 0.51-0.88). However, in adjusted models, this association was no longer significant, showing HRs (95% CI) of PRM intake for T2DM and CVD of 1.07 (0.85-1.35) and 1.14 (0.85-1.55), respectively.
PRM intake did not affect T2DM and CVD incidences among Korean middle-aged adults, although extremely low average consumption of PRM may explain the finding. Therefore, limiting PRM intake may not be a top priority for the prevention of chronic diseases in Korean population.