Radiographic Evaluation of First Metatarsal and Medial Cuneiform Morphology in Juvenile Hallux Valgus.Foot Ankle Int. 2018 10; 39(10):1223-1228.FA
Operative treatment of juvenile hallux valgus (JHV) has a high recurrence rate. The aim of this study was to better understand the pattern of radiographic deformity.
Standing radiographs of 93 feet in 57 patients with JHV, and 50 feet in 36 normal patients were measured. Measurements included: hallux valgus angle (HVA), first metatarsal physis status (open or closed), intermetatarsal angle (IMA), distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA), Meary's angle, medial cuneiform angle (MCA), relative first to second metatarsal length ratio (1:2 MT ratio), cuneiform obliquity (CO), and congruency of the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). JHV groups were defined as normal (HVA 0-15 degrees), mild-moderate (HVA 15-35), or severe (HVA > 35) and were analyzed.
Seventy of 93 feet (75%) with JHV presented with mild-moderate JHV (average HVA of 26.2 ± 5.6 degrees), and 23 feet (25%, 23/93) presented with severe JHV (average HVA of 41.9 ± 5.3 degrees). Multivariable analysis determined that DMAA (P < .001), MCA (P = .04), and congruency (P < .001) were independently associated with JHV and its severity (normal vs mild-moderate vs severe). Severe JHV cases had larger DMAA (P = .01), larger IMA (P = .01), larger 1:2 MT ratio (P = .02), and were less frequently congruent (P = .03) compared with mild-moderate JHV cases.
Deformity in JHV was highly correlated with both the proximal and distal morphology of the first metatarsal and medial cuneiform. Severe JHV was associated with increased bony deformity and increased incongruity of the MTPJ. Treatment should be individualized, but JHV treatment algorithms can take this information into account.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
Level III, comparative study.