Enhancing the Cancer Cell Growth Inhibitory Effects of Table Grape Anthocyanins.J Food Sci. 2018 Sep; 83(9):2369-2374.JF
The risk for breast and colon cancer may be lowered in part by high intake of fruits and vegetables. Fruits such as grapes are abundant in bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. The potential anticancer activity of anthocyanins may be limited by their metabolism in the gut and liver. One metabolic transformation is due to the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), which methylates polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Entacapone is a clinically used inhibitor of COMT, and has been shown to modulate the methylation of food-derived polyphenols. In this study, we compared the effect of entacapone on the cell viability of colon (Caco-2 and HT-29) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines treated with anthocyanins. Cells were treated with either cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, or an anthocyanin-rich grape extract, in the absence or presence of entacapone. Cell viability was assessed using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Entacapone in combination with the anthocyanins had a greater than additive effect on growth inhibition of the Caco-2 cells. In the MDA-MB-231 cell line, entacapone similarly enhanced the growth inhibitory activity of the anthocyanin extract. Entacapone also had antiproliferative effects when used as a single treatment. Total hydroperoxides was quantified in the cell culture media. Greater concentrations of the treatments resulted in higher levels of total hydroperoxides, indicating that oxidative stress may be an important mechanism for growth inhibition. In conclusion, the antiproliferative activity of fruit-derived anthocyanins was improved in human cancer cell lines by the clinically used drug entacapone. The efficacy and mechanisms of entacapone/anthocyanin combinations should be carefully studied in vivo.
Chemical components of grapes are good for our health and have been shown to lower risk for certain cancers. Their beneficial health effects could also be enhanced by consuming other molecules that improve their bioavailability.