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Is Sunlight Exposure Enough to Avoid Wintertime Vitamin D Deficiency in United Kingdom Population Groups?
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 08 01; 15(8)IJ

Abstract

Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is required for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis, and experimental studies have indicated the levels of sun exposure required to avoid a vitamin D deficient status. Our objectives are to examine the sun exposure behaviours of different United Kingdom sectors and to identify if their exposure is enough to maintain winter circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D above deficiency (>25 nmol/L). Data are from a series of human studies involving >500 volunteers and performed using the same protocols in Greater Manchester, UK (53.5° N) in healthy white Caucasian adolescents and working-age adults (skin type I⁻IV), healthy South Asian working-age adults (skin type V), and adults with photodermatoses (skin conditions caused or aggravated by cutaneous sun exposure). Long-term monitoring of the spectral ambient UVR of the Manchester metropolitan area facilitates data interpretation. The healthy white populations are exposed to 3% ambient UVR, contrasting with ~1% in South Asians. South Asians and those with photodermatoses wear clothing exposing smaller skin surface area, and South Asians have the lowest oral vitamin D intake of all groups. Sun exposure levels prevent winter vitamin D deficiency in 95% of healthy white adults and 83% of adolescents, while 32% of the photodermatoses group and >90% of the healthy South Asians were deficient. The latter require increased oral vitamin D, whilst their sun exposure provides a tangible contribution and might convey other health benefits.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Earth and Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. richard.kift@manchester.ac.uk.Division of Musculoskeletal and Dermatological Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, and Dermatology Centre, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M6 8HD, UK. lesley.e.rhodes@manchester.ac.uk.Division of Musculoskeletal and Dermatological Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, and Dermatology Centre, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M6 8HD, UK. mark.farrar@manchester.ac.uk.School of Earth and Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. ann.webb@manchester.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30071636

Citation

Kift, Richard, et al. "Is Sunlight Exposure Enough to Avoid Wintertime Vitamin D Deficiency in United Kingdom Population Groups?" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 15, no. 8, 2018.
Kift R, Rhodes LE, Farrar MD, et al. Is Sunlight Exposure Enough to Avoid Wintertime Vitamin D Deficiency in United Kingdom Population Groups? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(8).
Kift, R., Rhodes, L. E., Farrar, M. D., & Webb, A. R. (2018). Is Sunlight Exposure Enough to Avoid Wintertime Vitamin D Deficiency in United Kingdom Population Groups? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081624
Kift R, et al. Is Sunlight Exposure Enough to Avoid Wintertime Vitamin D Deficiency in United Kingdom Population Groups. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 08 1;15(8) PubMed PMID: 30071636.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Is Sunlight Exposure Enough to Avoid Wintertime Vitamin D Deficiency in United Kingdom Population Groups? AU - Kift,Richard, AU - Rhodes,Lesley E, AU - Farrar,Mark D, AU - Webb,Ann R, Y1 - 2018/08/01/ PY - 2018/07/09/received PY - 2018/07/27/revised PY - 2018/07/29/accepted PY - 2018/8/4/entrez PY - 2018/8/4/pubmed PY - 2019/2/2/medline KW - South Asian KW - adolescent KW - climatology KW - photodermatoses KW - ultraviolet radiation KW - vitamin D KW - white Caucasian JF - International journal of environmental research and public health JO - Int J Environ Res Public Health VL - 15 IS - 8 N2 - Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is required for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis, and experimental studies have indicated the levels of sun exposure required to avoid a vitamin D deficient status. Our objectives are to examine the sun exposure behaviours of different United Kingdom sectors and to identify if their exposure is enough to maintain winter circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D above deficiency (>25 nmol/L). Data are from a series of human studies involving >500 volunteers and performed using the same protocols in Greater Manchester, UK (53.5° N) in healthy white Caucasian adolescents and working-age adults (skin type I⁻IV), healthy South Asian working-age adults (skin type V), and adults with photodermatoses (skin conditions caused or aggravated by cutaneous sun exposure). Long-term monitoring of the spectral ambient UVR of the Manchester metropolitan area facilitates data interpretation. The healthy white populations are exposed to 3% ambient UVR, contrasting with ~1% in South Asians. South Asians and those with photodermatoses wear clothing exposing smaller skin surface area, and South Asians have the lowest oral vitamin D intake of all groups. Sun exposure levels prevent winter vitamin D deficiency in 95% of healthy white adults and 83% of adolescents, while 32% of the photodermatoses group and >90% of the healthy South Asians were deficient. The latter require increased oral vitamin D, whilst their sun exposure provides a tangible contribution and might convey other health benefits. SN - 1660-4601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30071636/Is_Sunlight_Exposure_Enough_to_Avoid_Wintertime_Vitamin_D_Deficiency_in_United_Kingdom_Population_Groups L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijerph15081624 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -