Congenital hand anomaly: etiology and associated malformations.Hand Clin. 1985 Aug; 1(3):405-15.HC
Congenital malformations of the hand may be present as part of syndromes. The recognition of these syndromes directly influences the surgical care of the hand anomaly. The natural history of the disorder may be predicted. The associated malformations may affect surgical timings and the indications for surgical correction. Various schema are presented here for evaluating the common abnormalities of the hand--radial club hand, ulnar defects, syndactyly, and polydactyly.