Expression rate of myogenic regulatory factors and muscle growth factor after botulinum toxin A injection in the right masseter muscle of dystrophin deficient (mdx) mice.Adv Clin Exp Med. 2019 Jan; 28(1):11-18.AC
The mdx mouse, the most approved animal model for basic research in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), has the ability to compensate muscle degeneration by regeneration process, which is obvious at approx. 3 months of age. Hence, this mouse model is only temporarily suitable to proof craniofacial changes which are usually evident in humans with the progression of the disease.
The purpose of our study was to examine the impact of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in influencing muscle regeneration in the masticatory muscles of healthy and mdx mice.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Chemo-denervation of the right masseter muscle was induced in 100-day-old, healthy and dystrophic mice by a specific intramuscular BTX-A injection. Gene expression and protein content of myogenic regulatory factors and muscle growth factor (MyoD1, myogenin and myostatin) in the right and left masseter, temporal and the tongue muscle were determined 4 and 21 days after injection, respectively, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot technique.
The 4 day and 21 day interval proved significant but varying changes of mRNA expression in both control and mdx mice. At the protein level, myogenin expression was increased in the temporal and masseter muscle on the injection side in controls, whereas dystrophic mice showed the same effect for MyoD1 expression. Additionally, increased protein expression of all studied genes could be found in dystrophic mice compared to controls, except the left temporal and the tongue muscle.
Muscle regeneration is not constant in BTX-A injected mdx masticatory muscles, presumably due to the already exhausted capacity or functional loss of satellite cells caused by dystrophin deficiency, and, therefore, disturbed regeneration potential of myofibrils. Botulinum toxin A injection cannot fully break down regulatory processes at molecular level in 100-day-old mdx mice. Further investigations are necessary to fully understand the regeneration process following BTX-A injection into dystrophic muscles.