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Expression rate of myogenic regulatory factors and muscle growth factor after botulinum toxin A injection in the right masseter muscle of dystrophin deficient (mdx) mice.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2019 Jan; 28(1):11-18.AC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The mdx mouse, the most approved animal model for basic research in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), has the ability to compensate muscle degeneration by regeneration process, which is obvious at approx. 3 months of age. Hence, this mouse model is only temporarily suitable to proof craniofacial changes which are usually evident in humans with the progression of the disease.

OBJECTIVES

The purpose of our study was to examine the impact of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in influencing muscle regeneration in the masticatory muscles of healthy and mdx mice.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Chemo-denervation of the right masseter muscle was induced in 100-day-old, healthy and dystrophic mice by a specific intramuscular BTX-A injection. Gene expression and protein content of myogenic regulatory factors and muscle growth factor (MyoD1, myogenin and myostatin) in the right and left masseter, temporal and the tongue muscle were determined 4 and 21 days after injection, respectively, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot technique.

RESULTS

The 4 day and 21 day interval proved significant but varying changes of mRNA expression in both control and mdx mice. At the protein level, myogenin expression was increased in the temporal and masseter muscle on the injection side in controls, whereas dystrophic mice showed the same effect for MyoD1 expression. Additionally, increased protein expression of all studied genes could be found in dystrophic mice compared to controls, except the left temporal and the tongue muscle.

CONCLUSIONS

Muscle regeneration is not constant in BTX-A injected mdx masticatory muscles, presumably due to the already exhausted capacity or functional loss of satellite cells caused by dystrophin deficiency, and, therefore, disturbed regeneration potential of myofibrils. Botulinum toxin A injection cannot fully break down regulatory processes at molecular level in 100-day-old mdx mice. Further investigations are necessary to fully understand the regeneration process following BTX-A injection into dystrophic muscles.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Orthodontics, Carl Gustav Carus Campus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.Department of Orthodontics, Carl Gustav Carus Campus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.Department of Orthodontics, Carl Gustav Carus Campus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.Department of Orthodontics, Carl Gustav Carus Campus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.Department of Orthodontics, Carl Gustav Carus Campus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30085421

Citation

Botzenhart, Ute U., et al. "Expression Rate of Myogenic Regulatory Factors and Muscle Growth Factor After Botulinum Toxin a Injection in the Right Masseter Muscle of Dystrophin Deficient (mdx) Mice." Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine : Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University, vol. 28, no. 1, 2019, pp. 11-18.
Botzenhart UU, Gerlach R, Gredes T, et al. Expression rate of myogenic regulatory factors and muscle growth factor after botulinum toxin A injection in the right masseter muscle of dystrophin deficient (mdx) mice. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2019;28(1):11-18.
Botzenhart, U. U., Gerlach, R., Gredes, T., Rentzsch, I., Gedrange, T., & Kunert-Keil, C. (2019). Expression rate of myogenic regulatory factors and muscle growth factor after botulinum toxin A injection in the right masseter muscle of dystrophin deficient (mdx) mice. Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine : Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University, 28(1), 11-18. https://doi.org/10.17219/acem/76263
Botzenhart UU, et al. Expression Rate of Myogenic Regulatory Factors and Muscle Growth Factor After Botulinum Toxin a Injection in the Right Masseter Muscle of Dystrophin Deficient (mdx) Mice. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2019;28(1):11-18. PubMed PMID: 30085421.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Expression rate of myogenic regulatory factors and muscle growth factor after botulinum toxin A injection in the right masseter muscle of dystrophin deficient (mdx) mice. AU - Botzenhart,Ute U, AU - Gerlach,Ricarda, AU - Gredes,Tomasz, AU - Rentzsch,Ines, AU - Gedrange,Tomasz, AU - Kunert-Keil,Christiane, PY - 2018/8/8/pubmed PY - 2019/8/27/medline PY - 2018/8/8/entrez KW - BTX-A KW - MyoD1 KW - mdx mice KW - myogenin KW - myostatin SP - 11 EP - 18 JF - Advances in clinical and experimental medicine : official organ Wroclaw Medical University JO - Adv Clin Exp Med VL - 28 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The mdx mouse, the most approved animal model for basic research in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), has the ability to compensate muscle degeneration by regeneration process, which is obvious at approx. 3 months of age. Hence, this mouse model is only temporarily suitable to proof craniofacial changes which are usually evident in humans with the progression of the disease. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to examine the impact of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in influencing muscle regeneration in the masticatory muscles of healthy and mdx mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Chemo-denervation of the right masseter muscle was induced in 100-day-old, healthy and dystrophic mice by a specific intramuscular BTX-A injection. Gene expression and protein content of myogenic regulatory factors and muscle growth factor (MyoD1, myogenin and myostatin) in the right and left masseter, temporal and the tongue muscle were determined 4 and 21 days after injection, respectively, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot technique. RESULTS: The 4 day and 21 day interval proved significant but varying changes of mRNA expression in both control and mdx mice. At the protein level, myogenin expression was increased in the temporal and masseter muscle on the injection side in controls, whereas dystrophic mice showed the same effect for MyoD1 expression. Additionally, increased protein expression of all studied genes could be found in dystrophic mice compared to controls, except the left temporal and the tongue muscle. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle regeneration is not constant in BTX-A injected mdx masticatory muscles, presumably due to the already exhausted capacity or functional loss of satellite cells caused by dystrophin deficiency, and, therefore, disturbed regeneration potential of myofibrils. Botulinum toxin A injection cannot fully break down regulatory processes at molecular level in 100-day-old mdx mice. Further investigations are necessary to fully understand the regeneration process following BTX-A injection into dystrophic muscles. SN - 1899-5276 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30085421/Expression_rate_of_myogenic_regulatory_factors_and_muscle_growth_factor_after_botulinum_toxin_A_injection_in_the_right_masseter_muscle_of_dystrophin_deficient__mdx__mice_ L2 - http://www.advances.am.wroc.pl/pdf/2019/28/1/11.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -