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Early Infant Feeding of Formula or Solid Foods and Risk of Childhood Overweight or Obesity in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Region of Australia: A Longitudinal Cohort Analysis.

Abstract

In southwestern Sydney the timing of introduction of formula and solids may be associated with risk of childhood overweight or obesity, and this may vary by age at breastfeeding cessation during first year. We included 346 infants from southwestern Sydney using the longitudinal study for Australian children (LSAC), who at baseline were singleton, full term, and normal weight births. The outcome risk of overweight or obesity was measured at every two-year interval of children aged 0 or 1 year at baseline until they reached age 10 or 11, defined by body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile, using the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Age at introduction to formula or solids was dichotomized at four months. We used mixed effects logistic regression for performing all analyses with and without adjusting for mother's BMI, age during pregnancy, and social disadvantage index. Missing data were estimated using multivariate normal imputation having 25 imputations. The odds of overweight or obesity were significantly higher among infants introduced to formula or solids at ≤4 months compared to those introduced at >4 months in both unadjusted (odds ratio = 2.3262, p = 0.023) and adjusted (odds ratio = 1.9543, p = 0.0475) analyses. The odds of overweight or obesity when age at formula or solids introduction was held fixed at ≤4 months, increased significantly (odds ratio = 2.0856, p = 0.0215) for children stopping breastfeeding at age ≤4 months compared to >4 months. Thus, increasing the prevalence of breast-feeding without any formula or solids to 4⁻6 months in southwest Sydney should be a worthwhile public health measure.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Translational Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown, NSW 2560, Australia. h.mannan@westernsydney.edu.au.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30087304

Citation

Mannan, Haider. "Early Infant Feeding of Formula or Solid Foods and Risk of Childhood Overweight or Obesity in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Region of Australia: a Longitudinal Cohort Analysis." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 15, no. 8, 2018.
Mannan H. Early Infant Feeding of Formula or Solid Foods and Risk of Childhood Overweight or Obesity in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Region of Australia: A Longitudinal Cohort Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(8).
Mannan, H. (2018). Early Infant Feeding of Formula or Solid Foods and Risk of Childhood Overweight or Obesity in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Region of Australia: A Longitudinal Cohort Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(8), doi:10.3390/ijerph15081685.
Mannan H. Early Infant Feeding of Formula or Solid Foods and Risk of Childhood Overweight or Obesity in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Region of Australia: a Longitudinal Cohort Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 08 7;15(8) PubMed PMID: 30087304.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Early Infant Feeding of Formula or Solid Foods and Risk of Childhood Overweight or Obesity in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Region of Australia: A Longitudinal Cohort Analysis. A1 - Mannan,Haider, Y1 - 2018/08/07/ PY - 2018/05/16/received PY - 2018/07/15/revised PY - 2018/07/21/accepted PY - 2018/8/9/entrez PY - 2018/8/9/pubmed PY - 2019/1/25/medline KW - childhood obesity KW - infant feeding factors KW - southwestern Sydney JF - International journal of environmental research and public health JO - Int J Environ Res Public Health VL - 15 IS - 8 N2 - In southwestern Sydney the timing of introduction of formula and solids may be associated with risk of childhood overweight or obesity, and this may vary by age at breastfeeding cessation during first year. We included 346 infants from southwestern Sydney using the longitudinal study for Australian children (LSAC), who at baseline were singleton, full term, and normal weight births. The outcome risk of overweight or obesity was measured at every two-year interval of children aged 0 or 1 year at baseline until they reached age 10 or 11, defined by body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile, using the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Age at introduction to formula or solids was dichotomized at four months. We used mixed effects logistic regression for performing all analyses with and without adjusting for mother's BMI, age during pregnancy, and social disadvantage index. Missing data were estimated using multivariate normal imputation having 25 imputations. The odds of overweight or obesity were significantly higher among infants introduced to formula or solids at ≤4 months compared to those introduced at >4 months in both unadjusted (odds ratio = 2.3262, p = 0.023) and adjusted (odds ratio = 1.9543, p = 0.0475) analyses. The odds of overweight or obesity when age at formula or solids introduction was held fixed at ≤4 months, increased significantly (odds ratio = 2.0856, p = 0.0215) for children stopping breastfeeding at age ≤4 months compared to >4 months. Thus, increasing the prevalence of breast-feeding without any formula or solids to 4⁻6 months in southwest Sydney should be a worthwhile public health measure. SN - 1660-4601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30087304/Early_Infant_Feeding_of_Formula_or_Solid_Foods_and_Risk_of_Childhood_Overweight_or_Obesity_in_a_Socioeconomically_Disadvantaged_Region_of_Australia:_A_Longitudinal_Cohort_Analysis_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijerph15081685 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -