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Endoscopic diagnosis of sessile serrated adenoma/polyp with and without dysplasia/carcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2018 Aug 07; 24(29):3250-3259.WJ

Abstract

Sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are early precursor lesions in the serrated neoplasia pathway, which results in colorectal carcinomas with BRAF mutations, methylation for DNA repair genes, a CpG island methylator phenotype, and high levels of microsatellite instability. Some of these lesions can rapidly become dysplastic or invasive carcinomas that exhibit high lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis potentials. Detecting serrated lesions, including SSA/Ps with and without dysplasia/carcinoma, is critical, but SSA/Ps can be difficult to detect, are inconsistently identified by endoscopists and pathologists, and are often incompletely resected. Therefore, SSA/Ps are considered to be major contributors to "interval cancers". If colonoscopists can identify the specific endoscopic characteristics of SSA/Ps, their detection and the effectiveness of colonoscopy may improve. Here, the endoscopic features of SSA/Ps with and without dysplasia/carcinoma, including the characteristics determined using magnifying endoscopy, are reviewed in the context of previous reports. Endoscopically, these subtle polyps are like hyperplastic polyps, because they are slightly elevated and pale. Unlike hyperplastic polyps, SSA/Ps are usually larger than 5 mm, frequently covered by a thin layer called the ''mucus cap'', and are more commonly located in the proximal colon. Magnifying narrow-band imaging findings, which include dark spots inside the crypts and varicose microvascular vessels, in addition to the type II-open pit patterns detected using magnifying chromoendoscopy, effectively differentiate SSA/Ps from hyperplastic polyps. The lesions' endoscopic characteristics, which include their (semi)pedunculated morphologies, double elevations, central depressions, and reddishness, and the use of magnifying endoscopy, might help to detect dysplasia/carcinoma within SSA/Ps. Greater awareness may promote further research into improving the detection, identification, and complete resection rates of SSA/Ps with and without dysplasia/carcinoma and reduce the interval cancer rates.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan. t-murakm@juntendo.ac.jp.Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30090005

Citation

Murakami, Takashi, et al. "Endoscopic Diagnosis of Sessile Serrated Adenoma/polyp With and Without Dysplasia/carcinoma." World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 24, no. 29, 2018, pp. 3250-3259.
Murakami T, Sakamoto N, Nagahara A. Endoscopic diagnosis of sessile serrated adenoma/polyp with and without dysplasia/carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2018;24(29):3250-3259.
Murakami, T., Sakamoto, N., & Nagahara, A. (2018). Endoscopic diagnosis of sessile serrated adenoma/polyp with and without dysplasia/carcinoma. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 24(29), 3250-3259. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v24.i29.3250
Murakami T, Sakamoto N, Nagahara A. Endoscopic Diagnosis of Sessile Serrated Adenoma/polyp With and Without Dysplasia/carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2018 Aug 7;24(29):3250-3259. PubMed PMID: 30090005.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Endoscopic diagnosis of sessile serrated adenoma/polyp with and without dysplasia/carcinoma. AU - Murakami,Takashi, AU - Sakamoto,Naoto, AU - Nagahara,Akihito, PY - 2018/04/02/received PY - 2018/06/27/revised PY - 2018/06/28/accepted PY - 2018/8/10/entrez PY - 2018/8/10/pubmed PY - 2018/11/10/medline KW - Endoscopic diagnosis KW - Invasive carcinoma arising from sessile serrated adenoma/polyp KW - Serrated neoplasia pathway KW - Sessile serrated adenoma/polyp KW - Sessile serrated adenoma/polyp with cytological dysplasia SP - 3250 EP - 3259 JF - World journal of gastroenterology JO - World J Gastroenterol VL - 24 IS - 29 N2 - Sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are early precursor lesions in the serrated neoplasia pathway, which results in colorectal carcinomas with BRAF mutations, methylation for DNA repair genes, a CpG island methylator phenotype, and high levels of microsatellite instability. Some of these lesions can rapidly become dysplastic or invasive carcinomas that exhibit high lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis potentials. Detecting serrated lesions, including SSA/Ps with and without dysplasia/carcinoma, is critical, but SSA/Ps can be difficult to detect, are inconsistently identified by endoscopists and pathologists, and are often incompletely resected. Therefore, SSA/Ps are considered to be major contributors to "interval cancers". If colonoscopists can identify the specific endoscopic characteristics of SSA/Ps, their detection and the effectiveness of colonoscopy may improve. Here, the endoscopic features of SSA/Ps with and without dysplasia/carcinoma, including the characteristics determined using magnifying endoscopy, are reviewed in the context of previous reports. Endoscopically, these subtle polyps are like hyperplastic polyps, because they are slightly elevated and pale. Unlike hyperplastic polyps, SSA/Ps are usually larger than 5 mm, frequently covered by a thin layer called the ''mucus cap'', and are more commonly located in the proximal colon. Magnifying narrow-band imaging findings, which include dark spots inside the crypts and varicose microvascular vessels, in addition to the type II-open pit patterns detected using magnifying chromoendoscopy, effectively differentiate SSA/Ps from hyperplastic polyps. The lesions' endoscopic characteristics, which include their (semi)pedunculated morphologies, double elevations, central depressions, and reddishness, and the use of magnifying endoscopy, might help to detect dysplasia/carcinoma within SSA/Ps. Greater awareness may promote further research into improving the detection, identification, and complete resection rates of SSA/Ps with and without dysplasia/carcinoma and reduce the interval cancer rates. SN - 2219-2840 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30090005/Endoscopic_diagnosis_of_sessile_serrated_adenoma/polyp_with_and_without_dysplasia/carcinoma_ L2 - https://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v24/i29/3250.htm DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -