Progress on norovirus vaccine research: public health considerations and future directions.Expert Rev Vaccines. 2018 09; 17(9):773-784.ER
Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide, account for approximately one-fifth of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases globally, and cause a substantial economic burden. Candidate norovirus vaccines are in development, but there is currently no licensed vaccine.
Noroviruses cause approximately 684 million cases and 212,000 deaths per year across all age groups, though burden estimates vary by study and region. Challenges to vaccine research include substantial and rapidly evolving genetic diversity, short-term and homotypic immunity to infection, and the absence of a single, well-established correlate of protection. Nonetheless, several norovirus vaccine candidates are currently in development, utilizing virus-like particles (VLPs), P particles, and recombinant adenoviruses. Of these, a bivalent GI.1/GII.4 VLP-based intramuscular vaccine (Phase IIb) and GI.1 oral vaccine (Phase I) are in clinical trials.
A norovirus vaccine should target high-risk populations, including the young and the elderly, and protect them against the most common circulating norovirus strains. A norovirus vaccine would be a powerful tool in the prevention and control of norovirus while lessening the burden of AGE worldwide. However, more robust burden and cost estimates are needed to justify investments in and guide norovirus vaccine development.