Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Modulation of motor learning by a paired associative stimulation protocol inducing LTD-like effects.
Brain Stimul. 2018 Nov - Dec; 11(6):1314-1321.BS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Paired associative stimulation (PAS) induces long-term potentiation (LTP)-like effects when interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between electrical peripheral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to M1 are approximately 21-25 ms (PASLTP). It was previously reported that two forms of motor learning (i.e., mode-free and model-based learning) can be differentially modulated by PASLTP depending on the different synaptic inputs to corticospinal neurons (CSNs), which relate to posterior-to-anterior (PA) or anterior-to-posterior (AP) currents induced by TMS (PA or AP inputs, respectively). However, the effects of long-term depression (LTD)-inducing PAS with an ISI of approximately 10 ms (PASLTD) on motor learning and its dependency on current direction have not yet been tested.

OBJECTIVE

To investigate whether, and how, PASLTD affects distinct types of motor learning.

METHODS

Eighteen healthy volunteers participated. We adopted the standard PAS using suprathreshold TMS with the target muscle relaxed, as well as subthreshold PAS during voluntary contraction, which was suggested to selectively recruit PA or AP inputs depending on the orientation of the TMS coil. We examined the effects of suprathreshold and subthreshold PASLTD on the performance of model-free and model-based learning, as well as the corticospinal excitability, indexed as the amplitudes of motor evoked potentials (MEPs).

RESULTS

PASLTD inhibited model-free learning and MEPs only when subthreshold AP currents were applied. The PASLTD protocols tested here showed no effects on model-based learning.

CONCLUSIONS

PASLTD affected model-free learning, presumably by modulating CSN excitability changes, rather than PA inputs, which are thought to be related to model-free learning.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Neurology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan.Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Neurology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Cell Physiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Cell Physiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan; Fukushima Global Medical Science Center, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: mhamada-tky@umin.ac.jp.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30093288

Citation

Sasaki, Takuya, et al. "Modulation of Motor Learning By a Paired Associative Stimulation Protocol Inducing LTD-like Effects." Brain Stimulation, vol. 11, no. 6, 2018, pp. 1314-1321.
Sasaki T, Shirota Y, Kodama S, et al. Modulation of motor learning by a paired associative stimulation protocol inducing LTD-like effects. Brain Stimul. 2018;11(6):1314-1321.
Sasaki, T., Shirota, Y., Kodama, S., Togashi, N., Sugiyama, Y., Tokushige, S. I., Inomata-Terada, S., Terao, Y., Ugawa, Y., Toda, T., & Hamada, M. (2018). Modulation of motor learning by a paired associative stimulation protocol inducing LTD-like effects. Brain Stimulation, 11(6), 1314-1321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2018.07.054
Sasaki T, et al. Modulation of Motor Learning By a Paired Associative Stimulation Protocol Inducing LTD-like Effects. Brain Stimul. 2018;11(6):1314-1321. PubMed PMID: 30093288.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Modulation of motor learning by a paired associative stimulation protocol inducing LTD-like effects. AU - Sasaki,Takuya, AU - Shirota,Yuichiro, AU - Kodama,Satoshi, AU - Togashi,Naohiko, AU - Sugiyama,Yusuke, AU - Tokushige,Shin-Ichi, AU - Inomata-Terada,Satomi, AU - Terao,Yasuo, AU - Ugawa,Yoshikazu, AU - Toda,Tatsushi, AU - Hamada,Masashi, Y1 - 2018/07/31/ PY - 2018/01/30/received PY - 2018/07/13/revised PY - 2018/07/27/accepted PY - 2018/8/11/pubmed PY - 2019/5/2/medline PY - 2018/8/11/entrez KW - Motor cortex KW - Motor learning KW - Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) KW - Paired associative stimulation (PAS) KW - Plasticity KW - Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) SP - 1314 EP - 1321 JF - Brain stimulation JO - Brain Stimul VL - 11 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Paired associative stimulation (PAS) induces long-term potentiation (LTP)-like effects when interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between electrical peripheral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to M1 are approximately 21-25 ms (PASLTP). It was previously reported that two forms of motor learning (i.e., mode-free and model-based learning) can be differentially modulated by PASLTP depending on the different synaptic inputs to corticospinal neurons (CSNs), which relate to posterior-to-anterior (PA) or anterior-to-posterior (AP) currents induced by TMS (PA or AP inputs, respectively). However, the effects of long-term depression (LTD)-inducing PAS with an ISI of approximately 10 ms (PASLTD) on motor learning and its dependency on current direction have not yet been tested. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether, and how, PASLTD affects distinct types of motor learning. METHODS: Eighteen healthy volunteers participated. We adopted the standard PAS using suprathreshold TMS with the target muscle relaxed, as well as subthreshold PAS during voluntary contraction, which was suggested to selectively recruit PA or AP inputs depending on the orientation of the TMS coil. We examined the effects of suprathreshold and subthreshold PASLTD on the performance of model-free and model-based learning, as well as the corticospinal excitability, indexed as the amplitudes of motor evoked potentials (MEPs). RESULTS: PASLTD inhibited model-free learning and MEPs only when subthreshold AP currents were applied. The PASLTD protocols tested here showed no effects on model-based learning. CONCLUSIONS: PASLTD affected model-free learning, presumably by modulating CSN excitability changes, rather than PA inputs, which are thought to be related to model-free learning. SN - 1876-4754 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30093288/Modulation_of_motor_learning_by_a_paired_associative_stimulation_protocol_inducing_LTD_like_effects_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1935-861X(18)30258-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -