Breakfast Consumption in French Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Survey Examined in the Context of the International Breakfast Research Initiative.Nutrients. 2018 Aug 09; 10(8)N
This study examines the consumption of breakfast on the basis of a 7-day dietary record (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France 2012⁻2013) in a representative sample of French children (n = 426), adolescents (n = 250), and adults (n = 1045). A large majority of the participants were regular consumers of breakfast (5⁻7 times per week). Breakfast accounted for 17.6% of total daily energy (339.4 kcal). Breakfast was rich in carbohydrates (24% of total daily intake) and simple sugars (31% of total daily intake). Relative to its contribution in daily energy intake, breakfast contributed higher proportions in the daily intake of many vitamins (B, C), and minerals (calcium, iron, iodine, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium). The main foods/beverages contributing to breakfast changed with age, with increasing contributions of non-wholegrain "bread and toasts" and "fruits", and a decreasing contribution of milk. Better quality of the diet, as measured by tertiles of the Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3, was associated with higher intakes of cereal products (bread and breakfast cereals, particularly wholegrain), dairy (milk, fresh dairy), and fruit at breakfast. In conclusion, breakfast is regularly consumed in France and contributes significantly to diet quality but could be improved in terms of content in fiber and protein.