Meals based on cod or veal in combination with high or low glycemic index carbohydrates did not affect diet-induced thermogenesis, appetite sensations, or subsequent energy intake differently.Appetite 2018; 130:199-208A
The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effects of meals containing protein from either cod or veal in combination with high or low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates, on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (primary endpoint), appetite, energy intake (EI), as well as postpranidal ghrelin, glucose, and insulin responses. Twenty-three overweight men and women (mean ± SD age: 30.0 ± 7.6 y, BMI: 27.2 ± 1.4 kg/m2) consumed 4 test meals: cod with mashed potatoes (high GI carbohydrate), cod with wholegrain pasta (low GI carbohydrate), veal with mashed potatoes, and veal with wholegrain pasta (∼2010 kJ, ∼25.5 E% protein, ∼41.0 E% carbohydrate, ∼33.5 E% fat). Energy expenditure was measured at baseline and six times postprandially, each lasting 25 min. Additionally, appetite sensations were measured every half hour. Arterialized venous blood samples were drawn every 20 min until an ad libitum buffet-style lunch was served 3.5 h later. DIT did not differ between test meals (P > 0.05), and there were no differences in appetite sensations or ad libitum EI (all, P > 0.05). Meal-time interactions were found for glucose and insulin (P = 0.04 and P < 0.001). Pairwise comparisons revealed that glucose and insulin peaks were higher after the meals with high GI carbohydrates. No differences were found between meals with cod or veal in combination with carbohydrates with low or high GI on DIT, appetite sensations, or EI in overweight men and women. However, as expected meals with high GI carbohydrates resulted in higher glucose and insulin responses compared to meals with low GI carbohydrates regardless of protein source.