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Human noroviruses: recent advances in a 50-year history.
Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2018 10; 31(5):422-432.CO

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW

Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis. This review summarizes new information on noroviruses that may lead to the development of improved measures for limiting their human health impact.

RECENT FINDINGS

GII.4 strains remain the most common human noroviruses causing disease, although GII.2 and GII.17 strains have recently emerged as dominant strains in some populations. Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expression on the gut mucosa drives susceptibility to different norovirus strains. Antibodies that block virus binding to these glycans correlate with protection from infection and illness. Immunocompromised patients are significantly impacted by norovirus infection, and the increasing availability of molecular diagnostics has improved infection recognition. Human noroviruses can be propagated in human intestinal enteroid cultures containing enterocytes that are a significant primary target for initiating infection. Strain-specific requirements for replication exist with bile being essential for some strains. Several vaccine candidates are progressing through preclinical and clinical development and studies of potential antiviral interventions are underway.

SUMMARY

Norovirus epidemiology is complex and requires continued surveillance to track the emergence of new strains and recombinants, especially with the continued progress in vaccine development. Humans are the best model to study disease pathogenesis and prevention. New in-vitro cultivation methods should lead to better approaches for understanding virus-host interactions and ultimately to improved strategies for mitigation of human norovirus-associated disease.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine. Department of Molecular Virology & Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.Department of Molecular Virology & Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.Department of Medicine. Department of Molecular Virology & Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30102614

Citation

Atmar, Robert L., et al. "Human Noroviruses: Recent Advances in a 50-year History." Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 31, no. 5, 2018, pp. 422-432.
Atmar RL, Ramani S, Estes MK. Human noroviruses: recent advances in a 50-year history. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2018;31(5):422-432.
Atmar, R. L., Ramani, S., & Estes, M. K. (2018). Human noroviruses: recent advances in a 50-year history. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 31(5), 422-432. https://doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000476
Atmar RL, Ramani S, Estes MK. Human Noroviruses: Recent Advances in a 50-year History. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2018;31(5):422-432. PubMed PMID: 30102614.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Human noroviruses: recent advances in a 50-year history. AU - Atmar,Robert L, AU - Ramani,Sasirekha, AU - Estes,Mary K, PY - 2018/8/14/pubmed PY - 2019/7/20/medline PY - 2018/8/14/entrez SP - 422 EP - 432 JF - Current opinion in infectious diseases JO - Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. VL - 31 IS - 5 N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis. This review summarizes new information on noroviruses that may lead to the development of improved measures for limiting their human health impact. RECENT FINDINGS: GII.4 strains remain the most common human noroviruses causing disease, although GII.2 and GII.17 strains have recently emerged as dominant strains in some populations. Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expression on the gut mucosa drives susceptibility to different norovirus strains. Antibodies that block virus binding to these glycans correlate with protection from infection and illness. Immunocompromised patients are significantly impacted by norovirus infection, and the increasing availability of molecular diagnostics has improved infection recognition. Human noroviruses can be propagated in human intestinal enteroid cultures containing enterocytes that are a significant primary target for initiating infection. Strain-specific requirements for replication exist with bile being essential for some strains. Several vaccine candidates are progressing through preclinical and clinical development and studies of potential antiviral interventions are underway. SUMMARY: Norovirus epidemiology is complex and requires continued surveillance to track the emergence of new strains and recombinants, especially with the continued progress in vaccine development. Humans are the best model to study disease pathogenesis and prevention. New in-vitro cultivation methods should lead to better approaches for understanding virus-host interactions and ultimately to improved strategies for mitigation of human norovirus-associated disease. SN - 1473-6527 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30102614/Human_noroviruses:_recent_advances_in_a_50_year_history_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000476 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -