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Psychobiological Mechanisms of Placebo and Nocebo Effects: Pathways to Improve Treatments and Reduce Side Effects.
Annu Rev Psychol 2019; 70:599-625AR

Abstract

Placebo effects constitute a major part of treatment success in medical interventions. The nocebo effect also has a major impact, as it accounts for a significant proportion of the reported side effects for many treatments. Historically, clinical trials have aimed to reduce placebo effects; however, currently, there is interest in optimizing placebo effects to improve existing treatments and in examining ways to minimize nocebo effects to improve clinical outcome. To achieve these aims, a better understanding of the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of the placebo and nocebo response is required. This review discusses the impact of the placebo and nocebo response in health care. We also examine the mechanisms involved in the placebo and nocebo effects, including the central mechanism of expectations. Finally, we examine ways to enhance placebo effects and reduce the impact of the nocebo response in clinical practice and suggest areas for future research.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand; email: kj.petrie@auckland.ac.nz.Division of Clinical Psychology, University of Marburg, 35032 Marburg, Germany; email: rief@uni-marburg.de.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30110575

Citation

Petrie, Keith J., and Winfried Rief. "Psychobiological Mechanisms of Placebo and Nocebo Effects: Pathways to Improve Treatments and Reduce Side Effects." Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 70, 2019, pp. 599-625.
Petrie KJ, Rief W. Psychobiological Mechanisms of Placebo and Nocebo Effects: Pathways to Improve Treatments and Reduce Side Effects. Annu Rev Psychol. 2019;70:599-625.
Petrie, K. J., & Rief, W. (2019). Psychobiological Mechanisms of Placebo and Nocebo Effects: Pathways to Improve Treatments and Reduce Side Effects. Annual Review of Psychology, 70, pp. 599-625. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-102907.
Petrie KJ, Rief W. Psychobiological Mechanisms of Placebo and Nocebo Effects: Pathways to Improve Treatments and Reduce Side Effects. Annu Rev Psychol. 2019 01 4;70:599-625. PubMed PMID: 30110575.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Psychobiological Mechanisms of Placebo and Nocebo Effects: Pathways to Improve Treatments and Reduce Side Effects. AU - Petrie,Keith J, AU - Rief,Winfried, Y1 - 2018/08/15/ PY - 2018/8/16/pubmed PY - 2019/6/18/medline PY - 2018/8/16/entrez KW - cognitive interventions KW - expectations KW - learning KW - nocebo KW - placebo KW - psychobiology SP - 599 EP - 625 JF - Annual review of psychology JO - Annu Rev Psychol VL - 70 N2 - Placebo effects constitute a major part of treatment success in medical interventions. The nocebo effect also has a major impact, as it accounts for a significant proportion of the reported side effects for many treatments. Historically, clinical trials have aimed to reduce placebo effects; however, currently, there is interest in optimizing placebo effects to improve existing treatments and in examining ways to minimize nocebo effects to improve clinical outcome. To achieve these aims, a better understanding of the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of the placebo and nocebo response is required. This review discusses the impact of the placebo and nocebo response in health care. We also examine the mechanisms involved in the placebo and nocebo effects, including the central mechanism of expectations. Finally, we examine ways to enhance placebo effects and reduce the impact of the nocebo response in clinical practice and suggest areas for future research. SN - 1545-2085 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30110575/Psychobiological_Mechanisms_of_Placebo_and_Nocebo_Effects:_Pathways_to_Improve_Treatments_and_Reduce_Side_Effects_ L2 - http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-102907?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -