Ostracism, attributions, and their relationships with international students' and employees' outcomes: The moderating effect of perceived harming intent.J Occup Health Psychol. 2019 Oct; 24(5):556-571.JO
The two studies reported in this article tested the relationships among ostracism, attributions of ostracism, and the victims' outcomes. I examined the moderating effect of perceived harming intent on these mediational relationships. Study 1 used online survey design and was based on a group of 150 international students who studied in the United States. Ostracism was positively related to both internal and external attributions. Internal attribution was more strongly negatively related to self-esteem than was external attribution. Perceived harming intent moderated the relationship between ostracism and internal attribution. International students made more internal attributions when the perceived harming was low rather than high. Study 2 used time-lagged online survey design and was based on data from 403 (Time 1, N = 236 at Time 2) full-time employees. Employees made both internal and external attributions of ostracism. Internal attribution was more strongly related to employee outcomes (i.e., lower self-esteem, higher depression, psychological strains, physical strains, and absence) than was external attribution. Perceived harming intent of ostracism moderated ostracism in relation to both internal and external attributions. Employees made more internal attributions when perceived harming intent was low (i.e., nonpurposeful ostracism); they made more external attributions when perceived harming intent was high (i.e., purposeful ostracism). Both studies provided support to the moderated mediation model in which the indirect effect of ostracism on employee outcomes via internal attribution was dependent upon the level of perceived harming intent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).