Preparation and evaluation of a reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction/ion-exchange mixed-mode chromatographic stationary phase functionalized with dopamine-based dendrimers.J Chromatogr A 2018; 1571:165-175JC
In this work, a novel dendritic stationary phase was synthesized by the repeated grafting of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) and dopamine (DA) on the surface of silica for performing mixed-mode high-performance liquid chromatography (MHPLC). Elemental analysis (EA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) showed the successful preparation of the dendritic stationary phase. The prepared stationary phase showed the retention mechanisms of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) under different mobile phase conditions. In detail, alkylbenzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydrophobic positional isomers were separated successfully in the RPLC mode. The baseline separation of nucleobases, nucleosides and flavonoids was achieved under HILIC mode, respectively. Meanwhile, some acidic and basic analytes were used to evaluate the IEC mode. The effects of different chromatographic conditions, such as acetonitrile content, salt concentration and pH in the mobile phase, on the different chromatographic modes were also investigated. In addition, the application of the mixed-mode dendritic stationary phase was demonstrated by the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), including Carthamus tinctorius L. and Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus. Interestingly, the stationary phase also has the ability for the capture and separation of boric acids. These meaningful applications confirmed that the mixed-mode dendritic stationary phase can be potentially applied in the analysis of complex samples.